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Scientific data, how to manage scientifically (policy interpretation, focus on comprehensive deepening of reforms)


The “Administrative Measures for Scientific Data” (hereinafter referred to as the “Measures”) was reviewed and approved by the Central Deep-Reform Group in January 2018 and was officially issued by the General Office of the State Council in recent days. The Measures aim to further strengthen and standardize the management of scientific data, ensure the safety of scientific data, increase the level of openness and sharing, and provide better support for national scientific and technological innovation, economic and social development, and national security.


This is the first time China has introduced scientific data management methods at the national level. At present, why should we strengthen the management of scientific data? What role does it play in improving national scientific and technological innovation? How to ensure the safety of scientific data and increase the level of openness and sharing? Relevant persons and experts of the Ministry of Science and Technology have made interpretations.


Technological innovation is increasingly dependent on data, but scientific data management is a “short board in the short board” in China.


“Scientific data is an important basic strategic resource for national scientific and technological innovation, development and economic and social development. It is the scientific and technological resources with the fastest propagation speed, the widest influence, and the greatest potential for development and utilization in the information age.” Ye Yujiang, Director, Basic Research Division, Ministry of Science and Technology Introduction.


In the era of big data, technological innovation is increasingly dependent on comprehensive analysis of scientific data. The development of contemporary science and technology presents obvious features of large-scale scientific and quantitative research. Scientific and technological innovation is increasingly dependent on large, systematic, and highly reliable scientific data. The comprehensive analysis of scientific data is itself a method of scientific and technological innovation. . Some scientific research teams have also appeared personnel specializing in the management and application of scientific data, responsible for the collection, collation and analysis of scientific data. Massive scientific data has brought impacts to scientific research activities in many disciplines such as life sciences, astronomy, space science, earth sciences, and physics, and scientific research methods have undergone important changes.


According to briefings, in recent years, as China’s investment in science and technology continues to increase and its scientific and technological innovation capabilities continue to increase, scientific data has exhibited “blowout” growth, and the quality has greatly increased. However, in the face of the current scientific and technological innovation demand for scientific data management, especially compared with developed countries in Europe and America, the management and application of scientific data in China still have obvious deficiencies, and it is a “short board in the short board” of China’s scientific and technological work.


“Especially, there are many high-value scientific data that have not been fully shared and used in the country and have gone abroad. It should be said that there is still much room for improvement in the development and utilization of scientific data, open sharing, and security protection.” Introduction, developed countries such as Europe and the United States have formulated clear policies at the national level to promote the management and open sharing of scientific data, and have supported the formation of a group of national-level scientific data centers or high-level databases that will be used to continuously aggregate and integrate their own Global scientific data resources and openness and sharing to society.


At present, China is in a critical period of implementing innovation-driven development strategy and building a strong country with science and technology. Strengthening and standardizing scientific data management is an important way and means to strengthen China’s scientific and technological innovation capacity building and ensure national security. Therefore, it is of great significance to publish policies and systems to strengthen and standardize scientific data management at the national level, and promote the open and sharing of scientific data, in terms of serving scientific and technological innovation, upgrading government public service capabilities, and developing a shared economy.


Vigorously promote the openness and sharing of scientific data resources. “Openness is the norm, and no openness is an exception.”


The important highlight of the Measures is to highlight the use of scientific data sharing. According to the sharing concept of “opening as the norm and not opening up as an exception”, it clearly defines the policy orientation of the public service for gratuitous service and gives full play to the important role of scientific data.


Wang Ruidan, deputy director of the National Science and Technology Infrastructure Platform Center, introduced that in recent years, China has done a lot of work in strengthening scientific data management and open sharing. The Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Finance have successively supported the establishment of a national science and technology resource sharing service platform in the eight fields of basic science, agriculture, forestry, oceanography, meteorology, earthquake, earth system science, and population and health, and initially formed a number of sciences with obvious advantages in resources. data center. In the management of scientific and technological plan projects in the fields of national key basic research and development projects in resource and environmental fields, scientific and technological basic work projects, the scientific data were incorporated into the project management process, and the integration and open sharing of a number of data were realized.


The “Measures” require that scientific data generated by scientific and technological planning projects be subject to mandatory exchanges, and that they be managed and preserved in a long-term through scientific data centers.


Academician Sun Jiulin of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences stated that a large number of scientific data have been produced by the National Science and Technology Plan project. Several departments have already submitted scientific data as an important part of scientific research project management. The “Measures” set forth clear requirements for the scientific data formed at various levels of scientific and technological plans (special funds, funds, etc.) funded by government budget funds, and require the project lead units to send them to relevant scientific data centers.


In view of the low utilization rate of scientific data, the “Measures” proposes three measures: First, implement a list management system, and organize competent departments to compile a catalog of scientific data resources. The second is to encourage scientific researchers to organize the formation of scientific data with clear, complete and accurate property rights and high sharing value. Thirdly, during the data sharing process, in principle, public welfare undertakings and public welfare scientific research are provided free of charge. If fees are really required, reasonable charging standards shall be formulated in accordance with stipulated procedures and principles of non-profitability; and agreement on the use of data for commercial activities shall be adopted.


The “Measures” also proposes to strengthen the cultivation and construction of national scientific data centers, clearly proposes to strengthen the overall layout, and on the basis of scientific data centers with good conditions and obvious resource advantages, optimize and integrate to form a national scientific data center.


Data security in the first place, strengthening intellectual property protection


Regarding the issue of the safety of scientific data with a high degree of concern, Ye Yujiang stated that the “Measures” always put data security at the forefront and made a principle of how the scientific data concerning national security and secrets are well managed. Sexual and policy provisions. “Scientific data management must be based on the premise of safety and control, in accordance with relevant state laws and regulations, determine the scientific data security level and opening conditions, strictly do a good job of confidentiality of scientific data, and establish a security review mechanism for data sharing and foreign exchange.”


The “Measures” clearly stipulates that scientific data concerning state secrets, national security, social and public interests, trade secrets and personal privacy shall not be open to the outside world; if it is really open to the outside world, it must be used for purposes of use, user qualifications, and confidentiality conditions. Review, and strictly control the scope of knowledge.


At the same time, the “Measures” clearly stipulates the responsibilities of the competent department and legal entity, and strengthens the main responsibility of the legal entity. It is clear that competent authorities and legal entities determine the confidentiality and opening conditions of scientific data according to law. In response to the problem of some scientific data flowing out of the country, the “Measures” stipulates that the competent authorities and legal entities must establish a corresponding management system to ensure that the authors who publish academic papers abroad submit the scientific data supporting the viewpoints of the thesis to the unit’s unified management.

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8 Free FTP Clients For Mac

If you have a self-installed WordPress blog, you should be familiar withFile Transfer Protocol (FTP). This is the protocol used by WordPress users to upload plugins and themes to the web server. FTP is also a popular protocol used by website builders to transfer files between computer and web server.

To be able to use FTP, you need an FTP client. There are two kinds of FTP clients: computer-based andweb-basedOnline FTP Clients: Use FTP Online without Installing A ClientRead More, but we are not going to discuss the web-based clients here.

While trying to update one of my blogs, I tried to search for several alternative FTP clients for my Mac. And here are the results

1.Classic FTP is a fully featured, free FTP client available for Mac OS X and Windows. It has a Mirror and Upload tool which will scan a selected local folder and upload any files that do not exist on the remote folder. The application also allows you to synchronize navigation of a local and remote folder.

2.CrossFTP is designed to be an easy-to-use client. It has a two-pane browser-like user interface which is simple to learn and use. Multi-tabs design facilitates managing and connecting multiple FTP sites simultaneously in a single window. Its written in Java so it would work in any Java-enabled machine.

3.FileZilla is a popular Windows-based FTP client. I didnt even know that there was a Mac version of FileZilla until I researched for this article. I had high hopes when I was about to use this app for the first time. But personally, I think that the Mac version is not as easy to use asthe Windows versionTransfer Files by FTP with FileZillaRead More. FileZilla is also available for Linux.

4.Cyberduck is a open source product licensed under the GPL and free to use. It is available in many languages and most translations are contributed by users. It is voted by many Mac communities as one of the best FTP clients available for Mac. Cyberduck is also available as a dashboard widget.

5.OneButton FTP is a graphical FTP client for Mac OS X with a strong emphasis on simplicity, drag and drop usability, and file queuing. It allows you to easily transfer files to and from remote servers, such as the ones hosting your websites, simply by dragging files to and from your computer. At the time of writing, this app is no longer supported by the author, but still works fine.

6.MacFusion is an open source Mac application that allows you to work with files on servers across the internet, as if they were sitting on your computer. Macfusion presents as a Volume in Finder. Macfusion works with SSH/SFTP and FTP servers. This app requires Leopard andGoogles MacFUSE. You can learn more about how to set up MacFUSE on thewiki howto pageor theQuicker Start Guide page.

7.bertragen is a widget designed to transfer files, be it to a FTP server, to another Mac running Ubertragen on your local network (through Bonjour) or to one of your Bluetooth devices.

8. is a drag-and-drop FTP upload widget. It has a simple interface and runs nicely. Just drop a file, the gate slides up, the file gets transfered, and you are done.

There are others, of course, which did not make it to the list simply because of my lack of knowledge. So, if you know any other alternatives, please share using the comment below.

And, dont forget to check out other MakeUseOfs articles aboutFTPandFTP Clients.

Your email address will not be published.Required fields are marked*

Do not use ClassicFTP it is sooo slow and to my knowledge it lacks major features such as CHMODEing.

SublimeText is a really good one. But unfortunately its only for windows.

FireFTP and Fetch for me. For simple jobs, Go=Server… and typeftp://serveris also adequate.

Ive been using Filezilla for a long time. I personally found it much superior than Cyberduck. chmoding, remote editing, toggling hidden/system files etc cant be done (or maybe there is some complex way to do it) in Cyberduck. Thanks for the article, I have some others to try.

Have you tries cmnd . for preferences?

There you will find that you can select an editor, I use smultron.

Try cmnd i to change permissions or ctrl return to copy or change the name.

Have you tried cmnd . for preferences?

There you will find that you can select an editor, I use smultron.

Try cmnd i to change permissions or ctrl return to copy or change the name.

Er…doesnt OSX include the usual FTP client…you know, ftp?

AFAIK, theres no stand-alone FTP client included in OS X, but you can use Go — Connect To Server menu (or Command + K) in Finder to connect to FTP server.

Fetch is free for educational and charitable use.

Good information and thanks for doing the research. If you use the Firefox browser on your Mac you can install the FireFTP addon for the browser (This also works in Windows).

I use this exclusively now and would recommend it to any one because of its ease of use. You can get it here: /

An Indonesian writer, self-proclaimed musician, and part time architect; who wants to make a world a better place one post at a time via his blog SuperSubConscious.

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File Transfer Failure

When transfering the file, I have encountered error below:

Error 7: stat: file_name: file permission denied (server msg: Permission denied, file_name)?

I have granted the proper rights(folder and user because my user was not administrator) with the link below:

Hi, does it work if you transfer the file as administrator? Also is the destination a mapped drive, share or local folder?

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Remember toacceptthe best answer by clicking on the check-mark to the left of the answer!


All user contributed content licensed under thecc-by-sa license.

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OpenSSH Download Linux

A free version of the SSH (Secure Shell) protocol for all GNU/Linux operating systems

OpenSSH is a freely distributed and open source software project, a library and command-line program that runs in the background of your GNU/Linux operating system and protects your entire network from intruders and attackers. It is the open source version of the SSH (Secure Shell) specification, specifically designed for

OpenSSH is an open source project distributed under a free license. It offers strong authentication based on the Public Key, Kerberos Authentication and One-Time Password standards, strong encryption based on the AES, Blowfish, Arcfour and 3DES algorithms, X11 forwarding supports by encrypting the entire X Window System traffic, as well as AFS and Kerberos ticket passing.

Additionally, the software feature port forwarding support by encrypting channels for legacy protocols, data compression support, agent forwarding support by using the Single-Sign-On (SSO) authentication standard and SFTP (Secure FTP) server and client support in either SSH2 or SSH1 protocols.

Another interesting feature is interoperability, which means that the project complies with versions 1.3, 1.5 and 2.0 of the original SSH (Secure Shell) protocol. After installation, OpenSSH will automatically replace the standard FTP, Telnet, RCP and rlogin programs with secure versions of them, such as SFTP, SCP and SSH.

The OpenSSH project is written entirely in the C programming language. It comprised of the main SSH implementation and the SSH daemon, which runs in the background. The software is distributed mainly as a universal sources archive, which will work with any GNU/Linux operating systems on both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures.

A portable version of the OpenSSH protocol is also available for download on Softpedia, free of charge, called Portable OpenSSH. It is an open source implementation of SSH version 1 and SSH version 2 protocols for Linux, BSD and Solaris operating systems.

This release includes a number of changes that may affect existing configurations:

This release removes server support for the SSH v.1 protocol.

Windows Remote Desktop Connection

This is a step by step tutorial that will show you how to setup a Remote Desktop Connection on your computer. In this guide I will show you how to use Microsofts Remote Desktop Connection Client/Sever behind a Linksys NAT Router with a DHCP address. If you do not meet these conditions you may still benefit from this tutorial but may need to skip certain sections. This tutorial is based on Windows XP professional, but may be applicable to other operating systems

There are several alternatives that can be used for connecting to your computer remotely, the most popular beingGoToMyPC by Citrix. Symantec makes a utility calledpcAnywherethat will also give you remote access. The other choice (or choices should I say) are the various flavors of Virtual Network Computing or VNC. There a lot of different VNC packages availed but my favorite is the freeUltraVNC. GoToMyPC is definitely the easiest choice, but Im looking for the best method. If you dont want to have to install client software I would recommend that you use GoToMyPC. We use Symantec pcAnywhere versions 10 and 11 at work. The package works alright, but we have had compatibility problems, and an annoying glitch that I have dubbed The right click of death. PcAnywhere is just to slow and we get tired of the choppy feeling it has when loading remote screens. As for the VNC clients, Ultra VNC beats pcAnywhere in my book. Ultra VNC packs all the features that I used in pcAnywhere and it is absolutely free. Open Source at that. Many VNC clients even work with multiple operating systems.

I will admit it. I like something Microsoft has made. The Remote Desktop Connection comes bundled with Windows XP Professional and can bedownloaded for other versionsof Microsoft Operating Systems (and Mac OSX I believe). The Remote Desktop Connection uses the RDP protocol and destroys the competition when it comes to speed. My remote screen never lags as it does with pcAnywhere. Another reason I like this software is because it is easy to set up. I will prove this with my tutorial. The copy and paste file transfers are also a great feature. You can have multiple users logged in to the same machine and not interrupt each other. The one downside to RDC is that if you want to show someone how to do something on the screen you will not be able to, because they cannot see what you are doing. You will need to send a Remote Assistance request is you want to do that. I think Microsoft used its insider advantage when creating this product and that may be why the others seem so much slower (plus it isnt mirroring the screen).

Remember I am using Windows XP Professional. For other version of the operating system you may need to download Remote Desktop Connection software from Microsoft. Also if you are using Linux, I dont know why you would be reading this but try VNC.

Registering and Installing Dynamic DNS

You will only need to do this step if you have a DHCP address from your service provider. Generally speaking, cable companies provide DHCP and DSL is usually static.

Determine you IP address type (call the provider if you have to). If you have a static IP you can skip this part. We will be using to provide our Domain Name. This means we will be able to use to connect to our remote computer.

After you have signed up and you log in, go to My Services

On the left menu click Add Host Services

Now fill in Hostname, select a Domain from the drop down box, and then hit Add Host.

You should now see the host listed if you click My Hosts on the left.

Now that is great and all, but we dont want to have to leave our web browser open to update our IP address.

Now we need todownload and install the DynDNS updater client from

When the download is complete double use you favorite zip utility to extract the files, and then double click setup.exe

Follow the simple installation instructions, and on the last page check the box that says Launch DynDNS Updater

The software should now be running in the system tray.

Double click the icon to bring up the configuration window. Click the settings button.

You are now prompted to enter your group. You can call the group what ever you want. I used RemoteDesktop Fill in your username and password for the DynDNS website and then click the add button.

Now enter your hostname, select you domain, and hit OK. You should now see your hostname in the list.

Click ok to return to the settings screen. Click ok one more time to return to the info screen. You should see your IP address in the boxes towards the bottom. You DynDNS Icon should be green in the tray. If it is red or you receive, go through the steps again and check for error. If everything is good continue.

You can now test your domain name by opening windows command line and pinging your DynDNS domain name.

If you do not get a reply check DynDNS settings, along with your Firewall and NAT Router settings.

Now that we have Dynamic DNS working properly we can configure the Remote Desktop Connection. It is a fairly easy process.

Right click on My Computer and then click Properties. Choose the Remote tab from the top of the Properties Window. Now under Remote Desktop check the box that says allow users to connect remotely.

Your windows account should be added. If you need to add others click the Select Remote Users button and add them. Make sure that your users have a password and a strong one preferably. I have experienced problems not being able to connect when I had no password set. It is also a major security risk, especially if the user has admin rights. Click ok when you are done. Windows Firewall will add an exception for Remote Desktop. If you are using another firewall you will have to allow Remote Desktop Connection Software.

If you are behind a NAT router you will need to forward remote desktop traffic to the computer you wish to connect to. I will be using a Linksys WRT54G router. Chances are you might have the same model, they are quite popular. We can configure the Linksys be opening our Web Browser and typing in the address of the router (Linksys Default is Enter you username and password when prompted. By default the Linksys username is left blank and the password is admin. You should now be logged in.

Now we need to click the Applications Gaming tab, and add our port forwarding rule.

As you can see I have several rules (for whatever reason.) The one you will be concerned with will be the one that says RemoteD. Here are the detailed settings.

The first field is the name. You can call the rule whatever you want. The next two are the range. Well forward 3389 to 3389. The drop box can be left alone, it is for allowing certain protocols (I think all you need is TCP but I am not sure on that one). The last box should be the address of the computer you want to connect to. Then check the box to enable the forward and hit apply.

Now we will configure the client computer. You can use a computer on your LAN for testing (recommended) or use a remote computer. First we need to open the client. If you dont have it you can download it and install it from Microsoft. Its buried in Windows XP Pros Start Menu under Start>

All Programs>



Now we will see the remote desktop client. If you do not need file transfer capabilities you can simple enter your domain and click connect.

If you would like the file transfer capabilities, click the options button. Now you will eneter the DynDNS address (or LAN IP) in the Computer field. Then enter the user name for the machine and the password. Check Save my password if you would like to save it. This will be the same username and password you added in Part 2. Domain can be left blank unless needed on you LAN.

There are several settings, but we are concerned with the file transfer. Click the Local Resources tab.

All you have to do to allow file transfer is click the Disk Drives checkbox under Local Devices like above. Now we can click connect to connect to our remote computer. It will warn you about the Disk Drives, just check dont prompt again and click ok.

I will finish the rest of this tutorial from my computer upstairs while connecting to this computer. This is the view of the screen when not maximized. If you hold your mouse in the middle of the top edge of the screen, the remote desktop menu will appear (allowing you to resize) Well I took a screenshot but it needs resized. I like using Photoshop but its on my pc. Simply transfer the file by copying it from one desktop and pasting it on the other. Then I can open it with Photoshop and resize it remotely.

When you are done simple click the X to close it. Thats all. If you have any question/suggestions on this tutorial feel free to leave a comment.

Join the TeamTutorials mailing list and get the latest tips, tricks, and special discounts for members only.

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Yes you can use the IP address, domain name, or Net BIOS name.

Ive been using RDP for a while, and just signed up for DynDNS a couple days ago. Whenever I try to connect using the domain name I signed up for I get a Windows 2003 Server web banner and an exclamation point in a yellow triangle on a black screen. If I use just the IP address it works fine, any ideas?

RDC uses port 3389 as you have mentioned here. Have you tried using a different port like 3392 or any other with your dyndns subscription? Microsoft says use it like this:

But it doesnt seem to work for me and was wondering if it did work for you. If it did, what did you have to do?

Well, I did everything for the host machine this said to. I created a host name at DYNDNS. On the host machine (Windows XP) I did the port forwarding on the WRT54G router, then saved the changes.

From the client machine (running Vista Home Premium) I ran Remote Desktop Connection, entered the computer name (in the form as well as the remote IP address (not and hit Connect. RDC then asked me for a username and password.

Its unclear if Im supposed to enter my username and password for DYNDNS or for Windows username and password on the host PC. I tried both but get a message this computer cant connect to the remote computer.

Before attempting this I successfully connected to the host PC (XP) from the client PC (Vista) inside my own router (which is also a Linksys WRT54G) simply using RDC.

I have also installed Anyplace Control (which seems like a decent program) and can connect to the host PC.

The log in name should be the name you setup for RDC. You can add and change users in the properties. Windows client is still my preferred RDC client, but I have to use LogMeIn from work because of our proxy. Its not a bad program either.

So you should have the port forwarded to the machine running terminal services. Then just open the client and connect using your dyndns domain name. Username and password are whatever you setup. You should also get prompted for the username and password when you connect locally.

It still doesnt work. This really puzzles me. Ill check out LogMeIn and compare it to Anyplace Control. Thanks.

Ive tried LogMeIn. Its awesome and much better than Anyplace Control, which I referenced earlier. First, its free (for individual use); second, once I set up the host PC (a laptop), LogMeIn knows when it changes locations and connects to the new one seamlessly; third, its much faster.

Thanks for the tip. I dont really care about RDC now.

Can Remote Desktop be used to access multiple desktops in an office using different TCP and UDP port numbers. like in PC Anywhere.

If so,, how can mulltiple users perform remote access at the same time.. can they do using the same static IP address assigned by the ISP.

Thanks for any comments and suggestions.,

I am not sure exactly what you are trying to do. You want to have multiple PC running remote desktop service and allow multiple user to connect in. The first thing I would ask is; Is your network setup with a NAT router?

I believe that RDC will allow multiple connections to an individual PC also. The user will be on entirely separate session. I know for a fact that this works on Windows Server OS, but am not entirely sure if it will work on the PC OS.

If you are trying to forward a different port on your router to each PC that may be a possibility. It is something I have been thinking about lately, because I usually just connect into 1 PC and then start RDC from there to get to another PC. I will look into setting up multiple PCs with a NAT router. I havent been using RDC as much since I started my new job, proxy wont allow it, so I have been using LogMeIn.

I will say that after using PC anywhere at my last job I am not a big fan of it. We used it for everything and I was a very laggy program.

There are also some open source options for Windows and Linux remote administration.

Can anyone please tell me the possible reasons that fails the remote desktop connection to a remote computer using NAT IP? Can you please provide me the checklist for making a successful RDC from Windows XP system to a Windows XP remote computer.

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For you guys that are asking how to do this in vista it is pretty much the same thing. You go to System>

Remote Settings>

and then click the option button for Allow connections from computers running any version of remote desktop.

Id prefer reading in my native language, because my knowledge of your languange is no so well. But it was interesting! Look for some my links:

Thanks for sharing, I did follow your instructions except that Im using D-Link router, but Im unable to connect the client could not connect to the remote computer

ALI, make sure that you find the port forwarding settings on your dlink router and forward the ports listed in this tutorial. If you need help you can find the instructions in the manual for your specific versions on the router at the DLINK website.

Thanks John, i did the forwarding correctly. I did use the Open Port Tool in found that the port are blocked, maybe by the ISP. Any idea how unblock it? what should I say to the ISP to unblock?

Do I have to configure the Modem? I have Speed Stream?

1. Connection from the LAN is Ok. (PC configuration ok)

2. Connection using Failed

3. Connection using IP address Failed

4. Connection by eliminating the router (connect PC directly to the modem) Failed.

5. Used the Open Port Tool, all the ports were showing timed out (is it possible that the ISP is blocking all the ports???)

Either the ISP is blocking ports or the Modem needs configuration.

I checked with the ISP and said, the only port blocked is 25.

I wouldnt think the ISP would block the ports. Does your modem have routing functionality? It is possible that you need to open the ports on the modem. Another option is using something like which uses http connection(port 80). Its also free.

Im not sure, I have SpeedStream 5200. I should a modem only but there are Port Forwarding in the Setup. I tried to do the same as I did in the router but it is not accepting my LAN IP.

This is message I receive NAPT server IP address is not a valid host LAN address.

I can get RDP to work fine from my office destop computer running XP to my home computer running XP with no problemsa at all. In fact, I can connect using RDP with my home PCs IP (NATed) IP address or the newly created Dynamic host name setup through DynDNS.

What I cannot do is get my new laptop running VISTA at my office to connect via RDP to my home PC running XP.

It works fine if I am on my home network but not if Im sitting at my desk at work.

Sorry Bruce, I have stayed a way from Vista for the most. Firewall? Update to the latest RDC on both machines. My employer blocks rdp so I useLogMeIn

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after clicking OK its asking for user name and password.

Use the username and password for the windows user that you setup to run RDC.

haha ^^ nice, is there a section to follow the RSS feed

Can I take part of your post to my blog?really like this,mate

How can i determine that my computer remoted at present? Can i view that at task manager?

Hi, I have a terminal server, and i have configured it already, and connection was ok, now I upgraded my main server operating system to windows 2008 server (previously 2003 server) but my terminal server stays with 2003 server. My question is, my 2003 server (terminal server) cannot connect to my main server database (MSSQL) with 2008 server OS. the error says, cannot sees the dbase/or access denied, is 2003 and 2008 server has compatibility issue regarding this?

Thanks. This is very helpful. I could always connect via Remote Desktop, but I always had to call in to recheck the IP. This saves that headache.

It worked just fine, this is a great tutorial. Keep them coming.

Thanks very much!!! Yours was the first site that clearly described that the IP addres goes in the computer field. I had thought the computer field was just an arbitrary name for the connection and that the IP address goes in the field domain. With the IP address in the domain name I was sometimes getting an RDP connection, but nothing I could reproduce. Very frustrating, thanks for making things so clear!

Is it possible to have several dyndns hostnames to contact different computers at home? If so will the router accept several port forwarding other than 3389 for the different computers on the home network.

You could just change the port of RDP in the registry for those of you whos jobs block RDP port 3389. Just google change rdp port. Then just make sure you use the same port when port forwarding on your router and when you login with RDP put :port on the end ie:(

More power to all of you who are able to make this connection work. I must have some inherent problems with my ISP or something because I had to turn to 3rd partyremote desktop softwareyears ago in order to make these connections.

i have create a web site with a database in my maching using the wamp sever.i was tried to connect in to it trough an another matching in our LAN.

i put my IP and home page file name in address bar, but unable to connect whats the wrong

Hi guys i cannot get the Remote Desktop Connection to work with dyndns in my internal network though it works perfectly internally via ip ( :/

Does it work only when you are on an external one actually?

I cant remote from Windows XP to Windows server 2008.If Remote from Win7 to Windows Server 2008,its ok. If someone have experience with that, please tell me how to do and show the tutorial.

In RDP encryption is enabled by default.

So, is there any way to disable encryption?

And is there any way to verify whether encryption is disabled or not?

Please show me how to configure and lets download pdf.

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Hi, I was running windows xp, I had my website running from it with dyndns domain and running direct update on it for years. My website was working along with RDT.

Now I have a new windows 7 computer with the same settings, but either my website or RDT will not work.

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This is a very clear and well written tutorial but my concern is that in a business case, can one justify taking the time to walk through it, when there are turnkey solutions available for purchase? If the time saved = net savings, then the right bus decision to make is to purchase theremote desktopsoft.

I am using a dial up modem how do i do can you create a toturial for dial up modem

I want to use one laptop(No.1) to control another laptop(No.2),

but I want to control the laptop No.2 with DOS command in laptop No.1,

can I do it? which kind of commands should I use?

What I want to do is: let laptop No.2 to run a doc. file inside laptop No.2 when I send a command inside laptop No.1;

Thanks for the tutorial :). I successfully set up the remote connection

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Air Keyboard

Remote Mouse, Touch Pad and Custom Keyboard for your PC, Mac or Android

Simple and free. This helpful app allows you to: use your iPhone for presentations, controlling your desktop from any WiFi-connected part of an area; play games sitting in a comfortable position; control your PC- or Mac-based home cinema distantly when resting on your sofa.

Advanced version with the built-in layout editor. A wide low-latency touch pad, native iPad keyboard, full-size computer keyboard with 88 keys or create your own. You can create keyboard layouts by yourself for your own needs. Clone existing layout or create it from scratch, add touch pad or buttons of any size to any position and assign keys or hotkeys to them.

Simple and free. Enjoy a wide low-latency touch pad, native Android keyboard and a full-size computer keyboard with 88 keys. Why do you have to spend your money on a bulky wireless keyboard and mouse? Try Air Keyboard and feel the ultimate universality of your tablet!

Secure file transfer program

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the program that uses SSH File Transfer Protocol (as in OpenSSH). For protocols and programs with similar names, seeSecure file transfer protocol.

sftpis acommand-line interfaceclientprogramto transfer files using theSSH File Transfer Protocol(SFTP) as implemented by thesftp-servercommand by theOpenSSHproject, which runs inside the encryptedSecure Shellconnection.[1]

It provides an interactive interface similar to that of traditionalFTPclients.

sftpshould not be confused with running anFTP client over an SSH connection.

One implementation of sftp is part of the OpenSSH project.[1]

This security software article is astub. You can help Wikipedia byexpanding it.

This page was last edited on 26 May 2016, at 00:07.

Text is available under the; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to theTerms of UseandPrivacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Linux Tutorials

is a Unix like operating system kernel developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991. The Linux kernel is used in a huge range of electronic devices including computers, phones, embedded systems, home appliances, etc.

Its a long story, but unless you are a kernel developer you dont interact with the Linux kernel directly every day. A kernel cannot run by itself, it needs programs and applications. The story goes that Richard Stallman, a pioneer of the free software movement in the 80s was trying to build a free ( free as in freedom ) operating system, and by the early 90s he had all the programs and applications he needed to complete the operating system, he was just lacking a kernel. When Linus Torvalds released his kernel in 1991, it was chosen as the GNU kernel and thus the GNU operating system was completed. The combination of GNU and Linux is what we call today aLinux Distribution. Many programs we use in a Linux distribution were built by GNU so to give credit to Richard Stallman many people call LinuxGNU/Linux. Debian one of the first Linux distributions that came out of this duo, still refer to their Linux distribution GNU/Linux. It is important to note that Richard Stallman tried to create his own kernel called GNU Hurd but he never was able to make it stable enough to include it in the GNU operating system, so Linux was chosen instead.

Linux is the most popular operating system in the world, people just dont see it. Linux is like the air, is here and everywhere but people dont see it and dont talk about it. Many people havent even heard of the word Linux in their life even though they use an Android device every day. 95% of all web servers powering the Internet today are using Linux, NASA uses Linux to launch rockets into space, the international space station use Linux for their computing, etc. 82% of all smart phones in the world are powered by Android which uses Linux for its kernel, and most likely the fridge and microwave you use in your kitchen everyday are powered by a Linux based firmware. People that claim that Linux is not popular are probably referring to Linux popularity in the desktop market dominated by Windows and Mac OS, and they are correct, Linux has never been popular in the desktop market. as of now the Linux desktop market share is about 2%. Why Linux has never been popular in the desktop market is up for debate, but the fact that nobody owns Linux has made it difficult to market the operating system to the general masses.

What are the best Linux distributions to run in a laptop or desktop?

Ubuntu is probably the most popular Linux distribution to use in a laptop/desktop right now.

Linux Mint Many people like to use Linux Mint because it comes with everything installed out of the box. there is no media codecs, and other proprietary stuff to install, Mint includes it all by default.

Fedora Fedora is the free Linux distribution packaged by Redhat. many people like Fedora because it includes cutting edge technologies in every release, and it features GNOME, the most used desktop environment in the Linux world.

OpenSUSE for people that prefer the KDE desktop environment, OpenSUSE is regarded as the best KDE distro by many.

Debian Debian is the father of Ubuntu, Linux Mint, and so many other Linux distributions. if you want to start from the root, use Debian.

Elementary OS Elementary OS is an Ubuntu derivative Linux distribution that resembles the Mac OS interface a lot. many people like it because it is very gorgeous and easy to use.

Arch Linux Arch Linux is revered by many Linux nerds. if you really want to learn Linux, you should try installing Arch to get an idea what youre really up to. like the nerds say, when you learn Ubuntu or Fedora you learn Ubuntu or Fedora, but when you learn Arch, you learn Linux.

What are the best Linux distributions to run in a server?

Ubuntu Server Ubuntu has a large presence in the server environment especially in cloud environments like Amazon, Windows Azure, and a bazillion of web hosting companies.

RedHat/CentOS Redhat and its derivative CentOS is still the preferred Linux distribution to run on servers by many.

SUSE Linux SUSE is a very popular server Linux distribution in Europe, and liked by many because it includes full solutions and is backed by a big name like Novell.

Debian Many people run Debian on the servers because of its stability and long life support.

In this page you will find many tutorials based on Linux and applications that use Linux as their preferred operating system.

FileZilla FTP Client and FileZilla FTP Server

FileZilla is a open source (GPL License) FTP program. It supports FTP and SFTP. Its a Windows only program (Windows 2000 and Windows XP). Theres a FileZilla client and a FileZilla server. Ill be installing both on my Windows XP SP2 box. The client will mainly be used for accessing my website. The server will be used to back up files from my other PCs. The server wont be facing the Internet.

The client is version 2.2.29 and the server is version 0.920.

I downloaded the install executable from the website and ran it. The first dialog boxes asks me to pick a language. The next asks me to agree to the GNU GPL Version 2, June 1991 license. Then Im asked to pick my install type and I pick standard. Full and Custom are also available. The following installation options are available. The ones installed as part of a Standard install are in bold.

According to the installer it will need 12.5MB of space which proves to be accurate.

Then Im asked to pick the destination folder. I keep the default (C:Program FilesFileZilla). I also keep the default for the Start Menu folder which is FileZilla. Theres also a check box to not create the shortcuts.Then the following screen is displayed.

I fire it up (no reboot was needed) and see the main screen. I enter in my sites address along with my ID and password along the top, click the Quickconnect button and get the connection. Port 21 was used by default, I didnt have to fill it in. Moving files is as easy as drag and drop between the windows. My PC is on the left (Local Site) and my ftp site is on the right.

(Click the above picture to see it full size)

My needs are simple so I didnt need to do a lot of digging around. But theres extensive help available that covers using and configuring the program.

I download the install executable and run it. Im asked to accept the GNU GPL on the first screen. The next screen presents the install options. They are:

The Standard type installs everything except the source code. Service Only installs the Server Service and the Start Menu Shortcuts. Interface Only installs everything except the Server service and the Source Code. Full and Custom select everything for install. All types of installs allow selecting/deselecting any item. I pick the Standard Install which it says will take 7.5MB which proves to be accurate. I like the low disk usage, but since its a file server its rather meaningless as its the data files that will matter.

Then Im asked for the destination and I keep the default C:Program FilesFileZilla Server.

The Im asked to pick the start up type:

I accept the default recommendation.

The same server asks me to pick the port. I keep the default of 14147. The same screen lets me pick whether or not to start the server after setup. I chose to start the server.

The next screen asks me how the server interface should be started. The options are:

I accept the default recommendation. I also chose to start the interface after setup completes.

The install then runs and I click close when its done.

Having selected the option to start the interface after setup I expected something to pop up. Nothing does. I have a FileZilla Server Interface icon on my desktop and a newicon in my system tray.

I click the Question mark icon and see the following screen:

I accept the defaults. The Server address is the loopback address (the PC Im on). The password defaults to blank and the port is the same that was entered during the install. The following screen opens.

I pick Edit – Settings from the menu and make the following changes:

I change the Admin password (from blank)

I note that the admin console can only be accessed from the local box ( or by specific IP addresses listed and keep it that way.

I enable logging and set it to use a new log file each day, deleting old files after 14 days.

I pick Edit – Users and add a user.

I dont see any mention of anonymous users in the settings. I try an anonymous connection and it fails. (Good)

In the setup I never saw a mention of a home directory. I also didnt see any directory created on my PC. So I try connecting with the ID I just created (using the FileZilla client) and sure enough, I get a 550 Could not get home dir! message and the connection fails.

When setting up the user I had seen a tab for Shared Folders. I had interpreted this to mean I could create aliases to have multiple users access the same folder. I thought that FileZilla might create the users home directory automatically. I guess not. So I go to Windows explorer and create a home directory for my FTP data and sub-directory under that for my user. Sure enough, as soon as I save I notice a button that says Set As Home Directory was just enabled. If I had noticed it earlier it would have been obvious. Theres already an H by the name of the directory I just set up so Im done. The default permissions are read/list and +subdirs. I give my ID all other rights (add/delete/append). Ill be needing these to do my backups.

I try the connection again and it works (using the FileZilla client on the same PC as the FileZilla server).

Now its the time for the real test. I head into my Mac and try a connection. No joy. Then I remember the windows firewall. Back to my laptop. I open up FTP port 21 in the Windows Firewall, but just for my local subnet. I try the connect again and Im in.

Im not really concerned with security. The Windows Firewall limits access to my local subnet and my home router doesnt all the FTP port in from the Internet. If someone gets by all those they have to do it at a time when my laptop is powered up and running. And they all run DHCP so IP addresses change on a whim.

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The Apache HTTP Server Project

The Apache HTTP Server Project is an effort to develop and maintain an open-source HTTP server for modern operating systems including UNIX and Windows. The goal of this project is to provide a secure, efficient and extensible server that provides HTTP services in sync with the current HTTP standards.

The Apache HTTP Server (httpd) was launched in 1995 and it has been the most popular web server on the Internet since April 1996. It has celebrated its 20th birthday as a project in February 2015.

The Apache HTTP Server is a project ofThe Apache Software Foundation.

The Apache Software Foundation and the Apache HTTP Server Project are pleased toannouncethe release of version 2.4.29 of the Apache HTTP Server (httpd).

This latest release from the 2.4.x stable branch represents the best available version of Apache HTTP Server.

The Apache HTTP Server Projectannouncesthe release of version 2.2.34, the final release of the Apache httpd 2.2 series. This version will be the last release of the 2.2 legacy branch. (Version number 2.2.33 was not released.)

The Apache HTTP Server Project has long committed to providing maintenance releases of the 2.2.x flavor through June of 2017, and may continue to publish some security source code patches beyond this date through December of 2017. No further maintenance patches nor releases of 2.2.x are anticipated. Any final security patches will be published to

Great! We have updated ourdownload pagein an effort to better utilize our mirrors. We hope that by making it easier to use our mirrors, we will be able to provide a better download experience.

Please ensure that youverifyyour downloads using PGP or MD5 signatures.

Awesome! Have a look at our current Help Wanted listings then:

Copyright © 1997-2018 The Apache Software Foundation.

Apache HTTP Server, Apache, and the Apache feather logo are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.

New User Tutorial Basic SSH

Category:Featured ArticlesTechnical SupportTags:command linecpanellinuxnewusertutorialpermissionsserverssh

If you have an account on a cPanel server with shell access or your own VPS or Dedicated server running Linux then SSH is a powerful tool to have in your skill set.

SSH(akaSecure Shell) is a way of logging into your server from a remote computer such as your home desktop or laptop. The remote connection utilizes encryption on both the servers end and your end to keep the entire session secure.

The most common type of connection that our support department uses is to SSH into a server as the root user. Logging in as root allows you to make systemwide changes, restart important services, and perform many other tasks that only the root user is allowed to do (by default).

If you are going to initiate your remote connection from a Linux or Mac OS X computer you can start using SSH by opening up the Terminal application. Linux users should know how to find the terminal, and Mac OS X users need only open their Applications folder and then the Utilities folder to find Unfortunately SSH is not built-in to Windows, so you will need to download an application likePuTTY.

Once your terminal is open you can start your SSH session as root using the following command:

(where m is your servers name)

This commands tells your computer I want to open a new SSH session to the server called, and I want to log in as the user root.

If this is your first time connecting to the server using this hostname your SSH client will ask if you are sure you want to connect to a new, previously unknown host. Say yes and you will be prompted for the root accounts password (or simply, root password). After you have typed in the password and it is accepted you will be logged in to the server as the root user.

Before you continue, it is important to note that logging in to a server as root is a powerful but also potentially DANGEROUS system administration tool. The root user is allowed to change/delete practically everything in a server without any type of warning or confirmation of changes being made. Always backup your files before you modify them using a simple backup command:

For new shell users, the above command breaks down like so:

The prompt. Shows you your username (

) and the name of the server you are logged into (

). For example: If you were logged into a server called webstuff1 and your username was bill, your prompt might display

indicates the directory you are currently looking at/working in (

The copy command. Tells the server to copy the file to a new file with a different name, or the same name but in a different location (path).

The new copy of the file that will be created. You can also specify a new location like /home/username/file.bak .

To review, the above command creates a copy of file in the same location as the original and calls it file.bak.

If this is your first time using a shell interface, be sure to check out part two of the New User Tutorial series:Basic Shell Commands.

You can alsosetup SSH keysfor easier authentication,restart some services from the command linechange the SSH portto a different port number,learn how to use pipesto send the output from one command to another command, or even tellSSH to stop allowing the root user to connect.

Liquid Webs Heroic Support is always available to assist customers with this or any other issue. If you need our assistance please contact us:

Updating an A record from Command Line

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New User Tutorial: Basic Shell Commands

How To: Give a Linux User Root-level Access Using sudo

How To: Change Monitoring Settings Using Manage

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FileZilla Secure FTP Client

FileZilla Secure was made to implement a missing feature of the FileZilla® FTP client by adding encryption to the stored passwords to protect them from being stolen.

UPDATE 12/11/2017: Due to FileZilla requesting that any unauthorized use of its registered trademark cease, only the source code download is available at this time. Development may continue under a different project name/domain name, stay tuned.Why FileZilla Secure?tl;dr at the time I started this project, FileZilla® did not encrypt saved FTP passwords and I got hacked, so I decided to implement it on own. Now Filezilla® has also decided to support encrypted passwords.

Ive been a web developer for a while now and like most web developers I use FTP, a lot. I used, and loved, FileZilla®. It was intuitive, fast, and free. Plus it saved all my logins and passwords for me which made managing the dozens of sites I looked after much much easier.

Everything was fine for years until one day all of the websites I managed were hacked, filled with malware, and blacklisted from Google on the same day. How could this be?

I soon discovered that FileZilla® was storing all my passwords in a plain text file on my computer, and knowing this, malware authors and hackers are targeting this file. All it took was for me was to visit a website that had been compromised, the malware got into my system through some sort of browser exploit, and within seconds someone somewhere suddenly had access to all of my websites.

After spending almost a week trying to clean up this mess I was determined to never let this happen again. What could be done to prevent this? Other programs that save sensitive information like Firefox, Chrome, Bitcoin, and others use a master password to encrypt and protect your information. This way if someone gets a hold of your password file they wont be able to read it without the master password.

Adding master password functionality is the 1 requested feature for FileZilla®. Unfortunately the author of FileZilla® refuses to add this feature, insisting that it is the responsibility of the OS to protect your files. While I can see his point, the harder I make it for hackers the better as far as I am concerned.

So despite loving FileZilla® I switched to WinSCP which has master password support. It was slow and the interface was horrible but what could I do? I couldnt risk getting hacked again.

After much frustration I finally decided to modify FileZilla® and add the master password support so that I and others could once again use the FTP client I love without risking everything.

Bonus: More Speed!The maximum number of transfer threads has been increased from 10 to 1000! While 1000 is not recommended 20, 50, and even 100 threads has been shown to work and has increased transfer speeds by over 5x.

ScreenshotsDue to FileZilla requesting that any unauthorized use of its registered trademark cease, only the source code download is available at this time.Windows Vista, 7, 8, 1064bit Installer – REMOVED64bit Portable – REMOVED32bit Installer – REMOVED32bit Portable – REMOVEDWindows XPREMOVEDMac OS XREMOVEDSources

this is a website about Filezilla Secure, a fork of FileZilla ® project.

Oracle client tips

What is an Oracle client and how is a Oracle client different from an Oracle server?

Answer:The Oracle client is the PC-side software such as the Oracle Client, which includes the connectivity prices that allow the PC to communicate with the Oracle server.

The most common issues with Oracle client software are theOracle ClientConfigurationand theOracle Client Security

There are two types of Oracle client software:

Full Oracle client:This contains all of the Oracle client files, both executables and JAR files.

Instant Oracle Client:This contains a smaller footprint, just enough to get a PC connected to Oracle, sqlplus.exe and glogin.exe.

You can download the Oracle client software on the Oracle MOSC of the Oracle web site.

Also see my other notes onOracle client software.

The landmark bookAdvanced Oracle SQL Tuning The Definitive Referenceis filled with valuable information on Oracle SQL Tuning. This book includes scripts and tools to hypercharge Oracle 11g performance and you canbuy itfor 30% off directly from the publisher.

Note:This Oracle documentation was created as a support and Oracle training reference for use by our DBA performance tuning consulting professionals. Feel free to ask questions on ourOracle forum.

Verifyexperience!Anyone considering using the services of an Oracle support expert should independently investigate their credentials and experience, and not rely on advertisements and self-proclaimed expertise. All legitimate Oracle experts publish theirOracle qualifications.

Errata?Oracle technology is changing and we strive to update our BC Oracle support information. If you find an error or have a suggestion for improving our content, we would appreciate your feedback. Juste-mail:

Oracle®is the registered trademark of Oracle Corporation.

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FileZilla Client 3100 (3264 Bit) Full Final + Portable (LATEST

FileZilla Client 3.10.0 (32/64 Bit) Full & Final + Portable (LATEST)

FileZilla Client 3.10.0isthe best freeFTP-manager,help youdownload and uploadfiles from variousFTP-servers.The Download FileZilla Client 3.10.0 (32/64 Bit) Final + Portable program isaccurate,with a convenient andpleasant interface,hasa sufficient number ofoptions and opportunities.Availablefor different operating systems, as well asa versionthat youcan install ona flash drive.And alsoconvenientto update fileson your hosting.

Features of FileZilla Client 3.10.0 (32/64 Bit) Full & Final + Portable (LATEST):

Encryption support, SFTP over SSHandFTP over SSL / TLS

Resume file transfers, as well assupport for largefiles

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How to download free Microsoft Remote Desktop for Amazon Kindle Fire HD

Microsoft Remote Desktop for Amazon Kindle Fire HD

How to download free Microsoft Remote Desktop for Amazon Kindle Fire HD

to verify compatibility of Microsoft Remote Desktop with Amazon Kindle Fire HD

To find Android version: go to Settings – About the phone – Android version

Follow the link to Google Play and click install

Enter link in your mobile browser or scan the QR-code

How to create a Google Play account

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We respond to all questions from users

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«Use a pocket PC to remotely manage Windows»

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SSH Error 8: undefined error when uploading files to webspace or homespace

SSH Error 8: undefined error when uploading files to webspace or homespace

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SSH Error 8: undefined error (server msg: Failure) when uploading files via ssh to network home space or web space

When using the SSH secure file transfer client, the upload fails with the error 8 message.

There is not enough space available in the network home or webspace for the file you are trying to upload.

Check your network home space or web space disk usage from the campus portal. Log into select Account manager. Review Home Space Usage or Web Space Usage depending on where you are attempting to ssh upload your files.

If your space is full, clean up files that no longer need to be online or request additional space by starting a Tech Support case via the campus portal,

Tips and examples for prospective students.

Shattering the myth of the starving artist.™

Save SFTP Account Data in FileZilla

(For 1&1 Windows Hosting, you can find theinstructions here.)Learn how to connect to your Linux Hosting webspace via SFTP in FileZilla.

Before you begin, you will need todownload and install FileZilla.

Launch the FileZilla program, either from the Start Menu, Finder, your desktop, or however you normally launch programs. Once the program is open, click

You can create a profile, which FileZilla refers to as a Site, containing all the information you need to connect to your webspace.

button, and type a name for the FileZilla Site such as your domain name. This helps you to know which site you are connecting to in the future, should you add other FTP sites.

Enter theFTP Software Connection Credentialsand then click the

The automatically configured 1&1 subdomain that can be viewed in the 1&1 Control Panel

You can use only the 1&1 subdomain or a IPv4 address for your FTP account. Unencrypted FTP cannot be used to connect with an IPv6 address; only SFTP can be used.

because Filezilla saves the password in plain text, making it possible for others to read it.

Also, in the transfer settings, select passive mode and limit the number of simultaneous connections to a maximum of 4.

You should now be able to connect and begin transferring files. To upload, select files from the left-hand side of the windows and drag them to the right-hand side of the menu. Let go of your mouse button to drop the files on the right-hand side to upload them.

For additional information, you may want to reference:

FTP Software Connection Credentials

Transfer Files with FileZilla via SFTP – 1&1 Help Center

Step-by-Step Guide for Transferring Files Securely with FTP – 1&1 Help Center

Configure FileZilla with the 1&1 Configuration File – 1&1 Help Center

Create a New FTP Account in Your Linux Package – 1&1 Help Center

Create a New FTP Account in Your Windows Package – 1&1 Help Center

FileZilla FTP Client 3901Windows XP

Windows XPFileZilla FTP Client XP

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TCP profile – client and server

Originally posted on 22-Feb-2008 byDavid Sherman

I have read through this forum topic with great interest. I found several messages that dealt with tcp profile optimization. I have one question though.

When configuring a TCP profile, there is an option to select Protocol Profile (Client) and Protocol Profile (Server). The default is TCP as the client profile and (Use Client Profile) as the server profile.

If configuring a VIP that will front end a pool of high end web servers that will be accessed from the Internet, should the Protocol Profile (Client) be set to the tcp-wan-optimized profile and the Protocol Profile (Server) be set to tcp-lan-optimized profile? At least as a start?

0Rate this QuestionAnswers to this QuestionUSER ACCEPTED ANSWER&F5 ACCEPTED ANSWERUpdated 22-Feb-2008Originally posted on 22-Feb-2008 byJason RahmF5I would think so intuitively, and this is the direction I received a few years ago from F5 support. However, in recent months, our ops team has received direction that the client profile in a WAN environment should be carried through to the server. Best advice is to test,test,test.0USER ACCEPTED ANSWER&F5 ACCEPTED ANSWERUpdated 22-Feb-2008Originally posted on 22-Feb-2008 byMarcus SlawikF5hi dsherman,

i have made the best experience with putting the lan-optimized profile on the Server part and the wan-optimized on the client side. so i have a lot of stuff local in my data center where bigip and servers are close together whereas my clients are far away also via lines with higher latency and it really speeded things up for the users in comparison also with users connecting directly to the servers.

schwiddy0USER ACCEPTED ANSWER&F5 ACCEPTED ANSWERUpdated 25-Feb-2008Originally posted on 25-Feb-2008 byDavid Sherman0Thanks for the info. It is really helpful. I wish though, that the F5 developers would step up and give some guidance on this. The TCP Express capabilities are prominently advertised, however, I find that configuration recommendations are lacking. It would be very helpful if the developers would say, If your web servers are high performance (Im using IBM P590), and your clients all connect on high speed LAN connections, then generally best performance would be the LAN protocol to both client and to server. If the clients are on slower links or on the internet, then generally, best performance would be with WAN optimized on client and LAN optimized on server.

Perhaps the recommendation would be to use L4 and utilize the PVA and forgo F5 SSL termination would be best, if the servers are up to the task.0USER ACCEPTED ANSWER&F5 ACCEPTED ANSWERUpdated 04-Mar-2008Originally posted on 04-Mar-2008 byJames ThomsonF5The performance of your web server doesnt matter necessarily. The conditions of the LAN are what matter. So, if you are on a local segment, use the TCP-Lan-optimized for the server-side and the WAN-optimized for the client-side.

If you have a high performance server in Hong Kong and your BIG-IP in London and youre accessing it over an internet link, then youd want to use the wan-optimized in that case.

Using FastL4 and not taking advantage of the dual tcp stacks just means that your High Powered Server is going to have to use the least common TCP options that each client supports individually and will need to negotiate different tcp options for each client. So, if some clients are coming in with windows 2000 on a dial-up connection, then your server will spend resources lowering window sizes, dropping packets and being inefficient.

With the LTM full proxy in line, your server will always get optimal tcp options from a tcp-wan-optimized profile on the server-side of the BIG-IP LTM and the clients each get handled as best they can with the wan-optimized.0You must be logged in to answer. You can loginhere.Specify an image to upload:Choose ImageCloseInsert ImagePost NotificationYour post has been identified as spam. If this is not the case, please co.CloseAbout DevCentral

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SSH Essentials Working with SSH Servers Clients and Keys

Get the latest tutorials on SysAdmin and open source topics.

We hope you find this tutorial helpful. In addition to guides like this one, we provide simple cloud infrastructure for developers.Learn more

SSH Essentials: Working with SSH Servers, Clients, and Keys

SSH is a secure protocol used as the primary means of connecting to Linux servers remotely. It provides a text-based interface by spawning a remote shell. After connecting, all commands you type in your local terminal are sent to the remote server and executed there.

In this cheat sheet-style guide, we will cover some common ways of connecting with SSH to achieve your objectives. This can be used as a quick reference when you need to know how to do connect to or configure your server in different ways.

Read the SSH Overview section first if you are unfamiliar with SSH in general or are just getting started.

Use whichever subsequent sections are applicable to what you are trying to achieve. Most sections are not predicated on any other, so you can use the examples below independently.

Use the Contents menu on the left side of this page (at wide page widths) or your browsers find function to locate the sections you need.

Copy and paste the command-line examples given, substituting the values in

The most common way of connecting to a remote Linux server is through SSH. SSH stands for Secure Shell and provides a safe and secure way of executing commands, making changes, and configuring services remotely. When you connect through SSH, you log in using an account that exists on the remote server.

When you connect through SSH, you will be dropped into a shell session, which is a text-based interface where you can interact with your server. For the duration of your SSH session, any commands that you type into your local terminal are sent through an encrypted SSH tunnel and executed on your server.

The SSH connection is implemented using a client-server model. This means that for an SSH connection to be established, the remote machine must be running a piece of software called an SSH daemon. This software listens for connections on a specific network port, authenticates connection requests, and spawns the appropriate environment if the user provides the correct credentials.

The users computer must have an SSH client. This is a piece of software that knows how to communicate using the SSH protocol and can be given information about the remote host to connect to, the username to use, and the credentials that should be passed to authenticate. The client can also specify certain details about the connection type they would like to establish.

Clients generally authenticate either using passwords (less secure and not recommended) or SSH keys, which are very secure.

Password logins are encrypted and are easy to understand for new users. However, automated bots and malicious users will often repeatedly try to authenticate to accounts that allow password-based logins, which can lead to security compromises. For this reason, we recommend always setting up SSH key-based authentication for most configurations.

SSH keys are a matching set of cryptographic keys which can be used for authentication. Each set contains a public and a private key. The public key can be shared freely without concern, while the private key must be vigilantly guarded and never exposed to anyone.

To authenticate using SSH keys, a user must have an SSH key pair on their local computer. On the remote server, the public key must be copied to a file within the users home directory at~/.ssh/authorized_keys. This file contains a list of public keys, one-per-line, that are authorized to log into this account.

When a client connects to the host, wishing to use SSH key authentication, it will inform the server of this intent and will tell the server which public key to use. The server then check itsauthorized_keysfile for the public key, generate a random string and encrypts it using the public key. This encrypted message can only be decrypted with the associated private key. The server will send this encrypted message to the client to test whether they actually have the associated private key.

Upon receipt of this message, the client will decrypt it using the private key and combine the random string that is revealed with a previously negotiated session ID. It then generates an MD5 hash of this value and transmits it back to the server. The server already had the original message and the session ID, so it can compare an MD5 hash generated by those values and determine that the client must have the private key.

Now that you know how SSH works, we can begin to discuss some examples to demonstrate different ways of working with SSH

This section will cover how to generate SSH keys on a client machine and distribute the public key to servers where they should be used. This is a good section to start with if you have not previously generated keys due to the increased security that it allows for future connections.

Generating a new SSH public and private key pair on your local computer is the first step towards authenticating with a remote server without a password. Unless there is a good reason not to, you should always authenticate using SSH keys.

A number of cryptographic algorithms can be used to generate SSH keys, including RSA, DSA, and ECDSA. RSA keys are generally preferred and are the default key type.

To generate an RSA key pair on your local computer, type:

This prompt allows you to choose the location to store your RSA private key. Press ENTER to leave this as the default, which will store them in the.sshhidden directory in your users home directory. Leaving the default location selected will allow your SSH client to find the keys automatically.

The next prompt allows you to enter a passphrase of an arbitrary length to secure your private key. By default, you will have to enter any passphrase you set here every time you use the private key, as an additional security measure. Feel free to press ENTER to leave this blank if you do not want a passphrase. Keep in mind though that this will allow anyone who gains control of your private key to login to your servers.

If you choose to enter a passphrase, nothing will be displayed as you type. This is a security precaution.

Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa. Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/ The key fingerprint is: 8c:e9:7c:fa:bf:c4:e5:9c:c9:b8:60:1f:fe:1c:d3:8a keys randomart image is: +–[ RSA 2048]—-+ + o S . o . * + o + = O . + = = + ….Eo+ +—————–+

This procedure has generated an RSA SSH key pair, located in the.sshhidden directory within your users home directory. These files are:

: The private key. DO NOT SHARE THIS FILE!

: The associated public key. This can be shared freely without consequence.

Generate an SSH Key Pair with a Larger Number of Bits

SSH keys are 2048 bits by default. This is generally considered to be good enough for security, but you can specify a greater number of bits for a more hardened key.

To do this, include the-bargument with the number of bits you would like. Most servers support keys with a length of at least 4096 bits. Longer keys may not be accepted for DDOS protection purposes:

If you had previously created a different key, you will be asked if you wish to overwrite your previous key:

If you choose yes, your previous key will be overwritten and you will no longer be able to log into servers using that key. Because of this, be sure to overwrite keys with caution.

If you have generated a passphrase for your private key and wish to change or remove it, you can do so easily.

Note: To change or remove the passphrase, you must know the original passphrase. If you have lost the passphrase to the key, there is no recourse and you will have to generate a new key pair.

To change or remove the passphrase, simply type:

You can type the location of the key you wish to modify or press ENTER to accept the default value:

Enter the old passphrase that you wish to change. You will then be prompted for a new passphrase:

Here, enter your new passphrase or press ENTER to remove the passphrase.

Each SSH key pair share a single cryptographic fingerprint which can be used to uniquely identify the keys. This can be useful in a variety of situations.

To find out the fingerprint of an SSH key, type:

You can press ENTER if that is the correct location of the key, else enter the revised location. You will be given a string which contains the bit-length of the key, the fingerprint, and account and host it was created for, and the algorithm used:

To copy your public key to a server, allowing you to authenticate without a password, a number of approaches can be taken.

If you currently have password-based SSH access configured to your server, and you have thessh-copy-idutility installed, this is a simple process. Thessh-copy-idtool is included in many Linux distributions OpenSSH packages, so it very likely may be installed by default.

If you have this option, you can easily transfer your public key by typing:

This will prompt you for the user accounts password on the remote system:

The authenticity of host ( cant be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is fd:fd:d4:f9:77:fe:73:84:e1:55:00:ad:d6:6d:22:fe. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed — if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys .11.111s password:

After typing in the password, the contents of your~/.ssh/id_rsa.pubkey will be appended to the end of the user accounts~/.ssh/authorized_keysfile:

Number of key(s) added: 1 Now try logging into the machine, with: ssh .11.111 and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.

You can now log into that account without a password:

If you do not have thessh-copy-idutility available, but still have password-based SSH access to the remote server, you can copy the contents of your public key in a different way.

You can output the contents of the key and pipe it into thesshcommand. On the remote side, you can ensure that the~/.sshdirectory exists, and then append the piped contents into the~/.ssh/authorized_keysfile:

You will be asked to supply the password for the remote account:

The authenticity of host ( cant be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is fd:fd:d4:f9:77:fe:73:84:e1:55:00:ad:d6:6d:22:fe. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes .11.111s password:

After entering the password, your key will be copied, allowing you to log in without a password:

If you do not have password-based SSH access available, you will have to add your public key to the remote server manually.

On your local machine, you can find the contents of your public key file by typing:

ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAACAQCqql6MzstZYh1TmWWv11q5O3pISj2ZFl9HgH1JLknLLx44+tXfJ7mIrKNxOOwxIxvcBF8PXSYvobFYEZjGIVCEAjrUzLiIxbyCoxVyle7Q+bqgZ8SeeM8wzytsY+dVGcBxF6N4JS+zVk5eMcV385gG3Y6ON3EG112n6d+SMXY0OEBIcO6x+PnUSGHrSgpBgX7Ks1r7xqFa7heJLLt2 demo@test

You can copy this value, and manually paste it into the appropriate location on the remote server. You will have to log into the remote server through other means (like the DigitalOcean web console).

On the remote server, create the~/.sshdirectory if it does not already exist:

Afterwards, you can create or append the~/.ssh/authorized_keysfile by typing:

You should now be able to log into the remote server without a password.

The following section will cover some of the basics about how to connect to a server with SSH.

To connect to a remote server and open a shell session there, you can use thesshcommand.

The simplest form assumes that your username on your local machine is the same as that on the remote server. If this is true, you can connect using:

If your username is different on the remoter server, you need to pass the remote users name like this:

Your first time connecting to a new host, you will see a message that looks like this:

The authenticity of host ( cant be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is fd:fd:d4:f9:77:fe:73:84:e1:55:00:ad:d6:6d:22:fe. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes

Type yes to accept the authenticity of the remote host.

If you are using password authentication, you will be prompted for the password for the remote account here. If you are using SSH keys, you will be prompted for your private keys passphrase if one is set, otherwise you will be logged in automatically.

To run a single command on a remote server instead of spawning a shell session, you can add the command after the connection information, like this:

This will connect to the remote host, authenticate with your credentials, and execute the command you specified. The connection will immediately close afterwards.

By default the SSH daemon on a server runs on port 22. Your SSH client will assume that this is the case when trying to connect. If your SSH server is listening on a non-standard port (this is demonstrated in a later section), you will have to specify the new port number when connecting with your client.

You can do this by specifying the port number with the-poption:

To avoid having to do this every time you log into your remote server, you can create or edit a configuration file in the~/.sshdirectory within the home directory of your local computer.

Edit or create the file now by typing:

In here, you can set host-specific configuration options. To specify your new port, use a format like this:

This will allow you to log in without specifying the specific port number on the command line.

If you have an passphrase on your private SSH key, you will be prompted to enter the passphrase every time you use it to connect to a remote host.

To avoid having to repeatedly do this, you can run an SSH agent. This small utility stores your private key after you have entered the passphrase for the first time. It will be available for the duration of your terminal session, allowing you to connect in the future without re-entering the passphrase.

This is also important if you need to forward your SSH credentials (shown below).

To start the SSH Agent, type the following into your local terminal session:

This will start the agent program and place it into the background. Now, you need to add your private key to the agent, so that it can manage your key:

You will have to enter your passphrase (if one is set). Afterwards, your identity file is added to the agent, allowing you to use your key to sign in without having re-enter the passphrase again.

If you wish to be able to connect without a password to one server from within another server, you will need to forward your SSH key information. This will allow you to authenticate to another server through the server you are connected to, using the credentials on your local computer.

To start, you must have your SSH agent started and your SSH key added to the agent (see above). After this is done, you need to connect to your first server using the-Aoption. This forwards your credentials to the server for this session:

From here, you can SSH into any other host that your SSH key is authorized to access. You will connect as if your private SSH key were located on this server.

This section contains some common server-side configuration options that can shape the way that your server responds and what types of connections are allowed.

If you have SSH keys configured, tested, and working properly, it is probably a good idea to disable password authentication. This will prevent any user from signing in with SSH using a password.

To do this, connect to your remote server and open the/etc/ssh/sshd_configfile with root or sudo privileges:

Inside of the file, search for thePasswordAuthenticationdirective. If it is commented out, uncomment it. Set it to no to disable password logins:

After you have made the change, save and close the file. To implement the changes, you should restart the SSH service.

Now, all accounts on the system will be unable to login with SSH using passwords.

Some administrators suggest that you change the default port that SSH runs on. This can help decrease the number of authentication attempts your server is subjected to from automated bots.

To change the port that the SSH daemon listens on, you will have to log into your remote server. Open thesshd_configfile on the remote system with root privileges, either by logging in with that user or by usingsudo:

Once you are inside, you can change the port that SSH runs on by finding thePort 22specification and modifying it to reflect the port you wish to use. For instance, to change the port to 4444, put this in your file:

Save and close the file when you are finished. To implement the changes, you must restart the SSH daemon.

After the daemon restarts, you will need to authenticate by specifying the port number (demonstrated in an earlier section).

To explicitly limit the user accounts who are able to login through SSH, you can take a few different approaches, each of which involve editing the SSH daemon config file.

On your remote server, open this file now with root or sudo privileges:

The first method of specifying the accounts that are allowed to login is using theAllowUsersdirective. Search for theAllowUsersdirective in the file. If one does not exist, create it anywhere. After the directive, list the user accounts that should be allowed to login through SSH:

Save and close the file. Restart the daemon to implement your changes.

If you are more comfortable with group management, you can use theAllowGroupsdirective instead. If this is the case, just add a single group that should be allowed SSH access (we will create this group and add members momentarily):

Now, you can create a system group (without a home directory) matching the group you specified by typing:

Make sure that you add whatever user accounts you need to this group. This can be done by typing:

Now, restart the SSH daemon to implement your changes.

It is often advisable to completely disable root login through SSH after you have set up an SSH user account that hassudoprivileges.

To do this, open the SSH daemon configuration file with root or sudo on your remote server.

Inside, search for a directive calledPermitRootLogin. If it is commented, uncomment it. Change the value to no:

Save and close the file. To implement your changes, restart the SSH daemon.

There are some cases where you might want to disable root access generally, but enable it in order to allow certain applications to run correctly. An example of this might be a backup routine.

This can be accomplished through the root usersauthorized_keysfile, which contains SSH keys that are authorized to use the account.

Add the key from your local computer that you wish to use for this process (we recommend creating a new key for each automatic process) to the root usersauthorized_keysfile on the server. We will demonstrate with thessh-copy-idcommand here, but you can use any of the methods of copying keys we discuss in other sections:

Now, log into the remote server. We will need to adjust the entry in theauthorized_keysfile, so open it with root or sudo access:

At the beginning of the line with the key you uploaded, add acommand=listing that defines the command that this key is valid for. This should include the full path to the executable, plus any arguments:

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Now, open thesshd_configfile with root or sudo privileges:

Find the directivePermitRootLogin, and change the value toforced-commands-only. This will only allow SSH key logins to use root when a command has been specified for the key:

Save and close the file. Restart the SSH daemon to implement your changes.

The SSH daemon can be configured to automatically forward the display of X applications on the server to the client machine. For this to function correctly, the client must have an X windows system configured and enabled.

To enable this functionality, log into your remote server and edit thesshd_configfile as root or with sudo privileges:

Search for theX11Forwardingdirective. If it is commented out, uncomment it. Create it if necessary and set the value to yes:

Save and close the file. Restart your SSH daemon to implement these changes.

To connect to the server and forward an applications display, you have to pass the-Xoption from the client upon connection:

Graphical applications started on the server through this session should be displayed on the local computer. The performance might be a bit slow, but it is very helpful in a pinch.

In the next section, well focus on some adjustments that you can make on the client side of the connection.

On your local computer, you can define individual configurations for some or all of the servers you connect to. These can be stored in the~/.ssh/configfile, which is read by your SSH client each time it is called.

Create or open this file in your text editor on your local computer:

Inside, you can define individual configuration options by introducing each with aHostkeyword, followed by an alias. Beneath this and indented, you can define any of the directives found in thessh_configman page:

You could then connect toon port 4444 using the username demo by simply typing:

You can also use wildcards to match more than one host. Keep in mind that later matches can override earlier ones. Because of this, you should put your most general matches at the top. For instance, you could default all connections to not allow X forwarding, with an override forexample.comby having this in your file:

Save and close the file when you are finished.

If you find yourself being disconnected from SSH sessions before you are ready, it is possible that your connection is timing out.

You can configure your client to send a packet to the server every so often in order to avoid this situation:

On your local computer, you can configure this for every connection by editing your~/.ssh/configfile. Open it now:

If one does not already exist, at the top of the file, define a section that will match all hosts. Set theServerAliveIntervalto 120 to send a packet to the server every two minutes. This should be enough to notify the server not to close the connection:

Save and close the file when you are finished.

By default, whenever you connect to a new server, you will be shown the remote SSH daemons host key fingerprint.

The authenticity of host ( cant be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is fd:fd:d4:f9:77:fe:73:84:e1:55:00:ad:d6:6d:22:fe. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes

This is configured so that you can verify the authenticity of the host you are attempting to connect to and spot instances where a malicious user may be trying to masquerade as the remote host.

In certain circumstances, you may wish to disable this feature.Note: This can be a big security risk, so make sure you know what you are doing if you set your system up like this.

To make the change, the open the~/.ssh/configfile on your local computer:

If one does not already exist, at the top of the file, define a section that will match all hosts. Set theStrictHostKeyCheckingdirective to no to add new hosts automatically to theknown_hostsfile. Set theUserKnownHostsFileto/dev/nullto not warn on new or changed hosts:

You can enable the checking on a case-by-case basis by reversing those options for other hosts. The default forStrictHostKeyCheckingis ask:

Host * StrictHostKeyChecking no UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null Host testhost HostName

StrictHostKeyChecking ask UserKnownHostsFile /home/

Multiplexing SSH Over a Single TCP Connection

There are situations where establishing a new TCP connection can take longer than you would like. If you are making multiple connections to the same machine, you can take advantage of multiplexing.

SSH multiplexing re-uses the same TCP connection for multiple SSH sessions. This removes some of the work necessary to establish a new session, possibly speeding things up. Limiting the number of connections may also be helpful for other reasons.

To set up multiplexing, you can manually set up the connections, or you can configure your client to automatically use multiplexing when available. We will demonstrate the second option here.

To configure multiplexing, edit your SSH clients configuration file on your local machine:

If you do not already have a wildcard host definition at the top of the file, add one now (asHost *). We will be setting theControlMaster,ControlPath, andControlPersistvalues to establish our multiplexing configuration.

TheControlMastershould be set to auto in able to automatically allow multiplexing if possible. TheControlPathwill establish the path to control socket. The first session will create this socket and subsequent sessions will be able to find it because it is labeled by username, host, and port.

Setting theControlPersistoption to 1 will allow the initial master connection to be backgrounded. The 1 specifies that the TCP connection should automatically terminate one second after the last SSH session is closed:

Save and close the file when you are finished. Now, we need to actually create the directory we specified in the control path:

Now, any sessions that are established with the same machine will attempt to use the existing socket and TCP connection. When the last session exists, the connection will be torn down after one second.

If for some reason you need to bypass the multiplexing configuration temporarily, you can do so by passing the-Sflag with none:

Tunneling other traffic through a secure SSH tunnel is an excellent way to work around restrictive firewall settings. It is also a great way to encrypt otherwise unencrypted network traffic.

SSH connections can be used to tunnel traffic from ports on the local host to ports on a remote host.

A local connection is a way of accessing a network location from your local computer through your remote host. First, an SSH connection is established to your remote host. On the remote server, a connection is made to an external (or internal) network address provided by the user and traffic to this location is tunneled to your local computer on a specified port.

This is often used to tunnel to a less restricted networking environment by bypassing a firewall. Another common use is to access a localhost-only web interface from a remote location.

To establish a local tunnel to your remote server, you need to use the-Lparameter when connecting and you must supply three pieces of additional information:

The local port where you wish to access the tunneled connection.

The host that you want your remote host to connect to.

The port that you want your remote host to connect on.

These are given, in the order above (separated by colons), as arguments to the-Lflag. We will also use the-fflag, which causes SSH to go into the background before executing and the-Nflag, which does not open a shell or execute a program on the remote side.

For instance, to connect toexample.comon port 80 on your remote host, making the connection available on your local machine on port 8888, you could type:

Now, if you point your local web browser to127.0.0.1:8888, you should see whatever content is atexample.comon port 80.

A more general guide to the syntax is:

Since the connection is in the background, you will have to find its PID to kill it. You can do so by searching for the port you forwarded:

You can then kill the process by targeting the PID, which is the number in the second column of the line that matches your SSH command:

Another option is to start the connectionwithoutthe-fflag. This will keep the connection in the foreground, preventing you from using the terminal window for the duration of the forwarding. The benefit of this is that you can easily kill the tunnel by typing CTRL-C.

SSH connections can be used to tunnel traffic from ports on the local host to ports on a remote host.

In a remote tunnel, a connection is made to a remote host. During the creation of the tunnel, aremoteport is specified. This port, on the remote host, will then be tunneled to a host and port combination that is connected to from the local computer. This will allow the remote computer to access a host through your local computer.

This can be useful if you need to allow access to an internal network that is locked down to external connections. If the firewall allows connectionsoutof the network, this will allow you to connect out to a remote machine and tunnel traffic from that machine to a location on the internal network.

To establish a remote tunnel to your remote server, you need to use the-Rparameter when connecting and you must supp

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