Scientific data, how to manage scientifically (policy interpretation, focus on comprehensive deepening of reforms)
The “Administrative Measures for Scientific Data” (hereinafter referred to as the “Measures”) was reviewed and approved by the Central Deep-Reform Group in January 2018 and was officially issued by the General Office of the State Council in recent days. The Measures aim to further strengthen and standardize the management of scientific data, ensure the safety of scientific data, increase the level of openness and sharing, and provide better support for national scientific and technological innovation, economic and social development, and national security.
This is the first time China has introduced scientific data management methods at the national level. At present, why should we strengthen the management of scientific data? What role does it play in improving national scientific and technological innovation? How to ensure the safety of scientific data and increase the level of openness and sharing? Relevant persons and experts of the Ministry of Science and Technology have made interpretations.
Technological innovation is increasingly dependent on data, but scientific data management is a “short board in the short board” in China.
“Scientific data is an important basic strategic resource for national scientific and technological innovation, development and economic and social development. It is the scientific and technological resources with the fastest propagation speed, the widest influence, and the greatest potential for development and utilization in the information age.” Ye Yujiang, Director, Basic Research Division, Ministry of Science and Technology Introduction.
In the era of big data, technological innovation is increasingly dependent on comprehensive analysis of scientific data. The development of contemporary science and technology presents obvious features of large-scale scientific and quantitative research. Scientific and technological innovation is increasingly dependent on large, systematic, and highly reliable scientific data. The comprehensive analysis of scientific data is itself a method of scientific and technological innovation. . Some scientific research teams have also appeared personnel specializing in the management and application of scientific data, responsible for the collection, collation and analysis of scientific data. Massive scientific data has brought impacts to scientific research activities in many disciplines such as life sciences, astronomy, space science, earth sciences, and physics, and scientific research methods have undergone important changes.
According to briefings, in recent years, as China’s investment in science and technology continues to increase and its scientific and technological innovation capabilities continue to increase, scientific data has exhibited “blowout” growth, and the quality has greatly increased. However, in the face of the current scientific and technological innovation demand for scientific data management, especially compared with developed countries in Europe and America, the management and application of scientific data in China still have obvious deficiencies, and it is a “short board in the short board” of China’s scientific and technological work.
“Especially, there are many high-value scientific data that have not been fully shared and used in the country and have gone abroad. It should be said that there is still much room for improvement in the development and utilization of scientific data, open sharing, and security protection.” Introduction, developed countries such as Europe and the United States have formulated clear policies at the national level to promote the management and open sharing of scientific data, and have supported the formation of a group of national-level scientific data centers or high-level databases that will be used to continuously aggregate and integrate their own Global scientific data resources and openness and sharing to society.
At present, China is in a critical period of implementing innovation-driven development strategy and building a strong country with science and technology. Strengthening and standardizing scientific data management is an important way and means to strengthen China’s scientific and technological innovation capacity building and ensure national security. Therefore, it is of great significance to publish policies and systems to strengthen and standardize scientific data management at the national level, and promote the open and sharing of scientific data, in terms of serving scientific and technological innovation, upgrading government public service capabilities, and developing a shared economy.
Vigorously promote the openness and sharing of scientific data resources. “Openness is the norm, and no openness is an exception.”
The important highlight of the Measures is to highlight the use of scientific data sharing. According to the sharing concept of “opening as the norm and not opening up as an exception”, it clearly defines the policy orientation of the public service for gratuitous service and gives full play to the important role of scientific data.
Wang Ruidan, deputy director of the National Science and Technology Infrastructure Platform Center, introduced that in recent years, China has done a lot of work in strengthening scientific data management and open sharing. The Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Finance have successively supported the establishment of a national science and technology resource sharing service platform in the eight fields of basic science, agriculture, forestry, oceanography, meteorology, earthquake, earth system science, and population and health, and initially formed a number of sciences with obvious advantages in resources. data center. In the management of scientific and technological plan projects in the fields of national key basic research and development projects in resource and environmental fields, scientific and technological basic work projects, the scientific data were incorporated into the project management process, and the integration and open sharing of a number of data were realized.
The “Measures” require that scientific data generated by scientific and technological planning projects be subject to mandatory exchanges, and that they be managed and preserved in a long-term through scientific data centers.
Academician Sun Jiulin of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences stated that a large number of scientific data have been produced by the National Science and Technology Plan project. Several departments have already submitted scientific data as an important part of scientific research project management. The “Measures” set forth clear requirements for the scientific data formed at various levels of scientific and technological plans (special funds, funds, etc.) funded by government budget funds, and require the project lead units to send them to relevant scientific data centers.
In view of the low utilization rate of scientific data, the “Measures” proposes three measures: First, implement a list management system, and organize competent departments to compile a catalog of scientific data resources. The second is to encourage scientific researchers to organize the formation of scientific data with clear, complete and accurate property rights and high sharing value. Thirdly, during the data sharing process, in principle, public welfare undertakings and public welfare scientific research are provided free of charge. If fees are really required, reasonable charging standards shall be formulated in accordance with stipulated procedures and principles of non-profitability; and agreement on the use of data for commercial activities shall be adopted.
The “Measures” also proposes to strengthen the cultivation and construction of national scientific data centers, clearly proposes to strengthen the overall layout, and on the basis of scientific data centers with good conditions and obvious resource advantages, optimize and integrate to form a national scientific data center.
Data security in the first place, strengthening intellectual property protection
Regarding the issue of the safety of scientific data with a high degree of concern, Ye Yujiang stated that the “Measures” always put data security at the forefront and made a principle of how the scientific data concerning national security and secrets are well managed. Sexual and policy provisions. “Scientific data management must be based on the premise of safety and control, in accordance with relevant state laws and regulations, determine the scientific data security level and opening conditions, strictly do a good job of confidentiality of scientific data, and establish a security review mechanism for data sharing and foreign exchange.”
The “Measures” clearly stipulates that scientific data concerning state secrets, national security, social and public interests, trade secrets and personal privacy shall not be open to the outside world; if it is really open to the outside world, it must be used for purposes of use, user qualifications, and confidentiality conditions. Review, and strictly control the scope of knowledge.
At the same time, the “Measures” clearly stipulates the responsibilities of the competent department and legal entity, and strengthens the main responsibility of the legal entity. It is clear that competent authorities and legal entities determine the confidentiality and opening conditions of scientific data according to law. In response to the problem of some scientific data flowing out of the country, the “Measures” stipulates that the competent authorities and legal entities must establish a corresponding management system to ensure that the authors who publish academic papers abroad submit the scientific data supporting the viewpoints of the thesis to the unit’s unified management.