China in the Middle Ages

China is well known for being one of the leaders in developmental countries. China has repeatedly proven to be one of the frontrunners in developing and researching medicine, technology, science, art and many other industries that most major societies rely on today. The interesting thing about China is that it has been that way throughout history.

China in the Middle Ages was viewed as a country that had a much better standard of living than many of the other leading countries. The reason that China has been able to continue building on its standard of living since the Middle Ages is because it simply avoids many of the major items that wreak havoc on a country such as war, governmental changes, and the division of state.

Religion in China in the Middle Ages

China in the Middle Ages was ahead of its time when it came to religion. Most leading countries had a single religion that was used throughout their country, and some even went to war over the division of religion. China saw three major religions that made up their society. Buddhism, Confucianism, & Taoism were the leading religions in China in the Middle Ages. Buddhism was a fairly new development in China in the Middle ages. The majority of Buddhists belonged to India, and this is actually where Chinas Buddhist roots came from.

This Indian influence was established in China via the trade route called the Silk Road. The Buddhist presence in China created inspiration for the development of new literature and philosophies surrounding the Buddhist religion in China. While Buddhism was just gaining popularity in China during the Middle Ages it could definitely be considered one of the most influential religions of the time period.

Taoism actually was not considered to be an organized religion until the Middle Ages in China. Taoism was considered to be more of a philosophy or a way that a person chose to live their life and was not really considered a religion until it was established as one in China in the Middle Ages.

Confucianism was one of the more popular religions in China at the beginning of the Middle Ages. It is the religious following of the philosophy of Confucius.

Confucianism is the basic belief that humans can be perfected through training, education, and personal experience. It is more of a personal development type of religion and does not really guide you to try and perfect other people. It was extremely popular in China in the Middle Ages, and actually saw the philosophies carved into stone during the early part of the Middle Ages.

Development and Creations in China in the Middle Ages

China has always been considered to be one of the more advanced countries, and the reason that they are considered that way is because they simply led the way in the development of many of the products that we use today. An excellent example of this is paper money. While some countries have stuck with coin currency, China created paper currency during the Middle Ages, and was the first country to use it. This was a huge development for it provided a lower cost alternative for printing money and that is why the majority of the countries still use paper currency today.

Until the Middle Ages in China it was incredibly difficult to develop books in any type of mass production and to make an easy to distribute package. The papermaking capabilities that China established during the Song dynasty finally created a way to produce books that could be more easily transported.

Many of the developments with paper were extremely helpful, and almost all of them are still in use today, but China also had many additions to the mathematics and science world as well. One of the issues that kids struggle with the most growing up in school is learning their fractions. They have China to thank for that. China establish the fraction during the Song dynasty, and has created trouble for people learning math ever since.

Hunters and fishermen can thank China for their establishment of the lunar calendar during the Middle Ages. Thanks to this precise measurement of the phases of the moon both hunters and fisherman have a little cheat sheet for when the best time will be to go out and conduct their sport. There are many other additions that were established in China during the Middle Ages, and the majority of them of changed the course of society as a whole forever.

It seems that throughout history every major country has had at least one leader that has tried to take over as much of the world as possible, and Chinas would be King Khan. King Khan, also known as Genghis Khan, was the first leader in China to make a concentrated effort in trying to establish a great deal more land. King Khan made his way across Europe collecting countries like Russia, China, and Baghdad. Most of the efforts of King Khan are what created what is known as China today. He was the first line in rulers of the Yuan dynasty.

King Khan collected a lot of land throughout his time in power, but he really wanted to establish a stable country that could thrive. Once he was settled with the land that he had acquired he re-opened the trade lines of the Silk Road and promised safe transport to any traders.

Unfortunately, these trading routes become a highway for transporting the plague in later years. A great deal of people are wiped out during the plague and due to the Silk Road the effects of the plague are extended quickly. Due to the plague and other tough issues that appear throughout China there is a battle for leadership and an end to the Yuan dynasty.

The Ming dynasty is like a breath of fresh air into China at the close of the Middle Ages. After so much disaster the Ming dynasty works to build China back to its true form. It repairs the Great Wall, and begins construction on the Imperial Palace. The Ming dynasty also saw a return of the focus back to art and development in order to establish China at the top once again.

Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages

Clothing in Medieval Times and Social Status

1920s Fashion Was a Time of Great Social Change

Vintage Womans Day Collection Sewing Pattern McCalls 8144 Top Pants Shorts Skirt Womens Misses 10 12 14 Bust 32 34 36 Uncut Factory Folds

Vintage Womans Day Collection Sewing Pattern McCalls 8144 Top Pants Shorts Skirt, Womens Misses 10 12 14 Bust 32 34 36 Uncut Factory Folds

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Vintage McCalls Womans Day Collection Three Hour Separates Sewing Pattern. Misses and Misses Petite Top in Two Lengths, Pull-on Pants, Short and Skirt. Three hours refers to sewing machine time only. Pattern is adjustable for misses and women 53 and under. Select-a-size pattern allows you to change cutting lines where your size changes. Pattern and instructions to make a top with short sleeves or sleeveless, with neckline variations, and side slits, and pull-on pants, shorts and skirt with two rows of waistline elastic, and side seam pockets. Purchased hat, belt, trim, notions and accessories.

Bust : 32-1/2 34 36

Waist : 25 26-1/2 28

Hip : 34-1/2 36 38

Back Waist Length : 16 16-1/4 16-1/2

Cotton – Cotton Blends – Challis – Crepe – Linen – Faille – Washed Silk

Top Views A, B – 29-1/4 29-1/2 29-3/4

Top Views C, D – 25-1/4 25-1/2 25-3/4

Finished Back Length of Skirt from Waist : 35

Finished Side Length of Skirt from Waist : 40 40-1/2 40-1/2

Finished Bust Measurement of Top, All Views : 39 40-1/2 42-1/2

Top, all Views – 39 40-1/2 42-1/2

Pants – 39-1/2 40-1/2 42-1/2

Shorts – 40 41-1/2 43-1/2

Finished Width of Lower Edge of Pants Leg : 13 13-1/2 14

Top : Front Views A, B – Front Views C, D – Back – Front Facing Views A, B – Front Facing Views C, D – Back Facing – Sleeve Views A, C

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:::: INCHES TO CENTIMETERS CONVERSIONS :::: :::::::::BUST:::::::::::::WAIST:::::::::::::::HIP::::::::: 30.5 / 77 cm::::23 / 58 cm::::::32.5 / 83 cm 31.5 / 80 cm::::24 / 61 cm::::::33.5 / 85 cm 32.5 / 83 cm::::25 / 64 cm::::::34.5 / 88 cm 34 / 87 cm:::::::26.5 / 67 cm:::36 / 92 cm 36 / 92 cm:::::::28 / 71 cm:::::::38 / 97 cm 38 / 97 cm:::::::30 / 76 cm:::::::40 / 102 cm 40 / 102 cm:::::32 / 81 cm:::::::42 / 107 cm 42 / 107 cm:::::34/87 cm:::::::::44 / 112 cm :::: LOVE A PATTERN IN THE WRONG SIZE? :::: CRAFTSY BLOG TO THE RESCUE! ::::

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:::: INCHES TO CENTIMETERS CONVERSIONS :::: :::::::::BUST:::::::::::::WAIST:::::::::::::::HIP::::::::: 30.5 / 77 cm::::23 / 58 cm::::::32.5 / 83 cm 31.5 / 80 cm::::24 / 61 cm::::::33.5 / 85 cm 32.5 / 83 cm::::25 / 64 cm::::::34.5 / 88 cm 34 / 87 cm:::::::26.5 / 67 cm:::36 / 92 cm 36 / 92 cm:::::::28 / 71 cm:::::::38 / 97 cm 38 / 97 cm:::::::30 / 76 cm:::::::40 / 102 cm 40 / 102 cm:::::32 / 81 cm:::::::42 / 107 cm 42 / 107 cm:::::34/87 cm:::::::::44 / 112 cm :::: LOVE A PATTERN IN THE WRONG SIZE? :::: CRAFTSY BLOG TO THE RESCUE! ::::

❈ PRINTED PATTERN COPYRIGHT DISCLAIMER ❈ © ® ™ DO PLEASE KEEP IN MIND : PATTERNS LESS THAN 90 YEARS OLD REMAIN UNDER COPYRIGHT LAWS AND SHOULD NOT BE PURCHASED WITH INTENT TO CREATE PDFs OR REPRODUCTIONS FOR RESALE ™ ® ©

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Gender roles and family structure in China

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Transcript of Gender roles and family structure in China

How has recent Chinese culture changed women and their families? Gender Roles and Family Structure in China Since early times, men have been seen as the head of the family. Ancestors were linked exclusively through men. Women were only in the records if they caused trouble. Their loyalty was often questioned. Confucianism and its impacts on women Women had to respond to the wishes and needs of their closely related men.

Confucian teachings created a patriarchal society in which women had to obey their husbands and grown sons.

Concubinage meant that women were married to a man but were not his legal wives, and they were inferior to his legal wife in status and treatment, this was considered okay because it was a sin not to have male heirs to end the family line

The most obedient women were illiterate Womens roles according to Confucius

Bibliography Women were to occupy a position lower than men, no matter their level

Women being lesser than men was considered to be natural and proper.

They were educated on self-discipline, etiquette, relationships with in-laws, household management, humility, and chastity. Early Times A womans duty is not to control or take charge.

Womans greatest duty is to produce a son.

A husband can marry twice, but his wife must never remarry.

Disorder is not sent down by Heaven, it is produced by women.

Those who cannot be taught, cannot be instructed. These are women and eunuchs.

There are three unfilial acts: the greatest of these is the failure to produce sons.

Women are to be led and to follow others.

A woman should look on her husband as if he were Heaven itself, and never weary of thinking how she may yield to him. Quotes from the Early times Modern Women Many women living in ancient china led oppressed lives Daily Life of Women in Ancient China Nushu This practice caused severe disability for millions of Chinese women. Communism seemed to usher in a new society for China, and, in many ways, it actually did. Communism and its influences Leftover Ladies Men have always been preferred to women, because men took care of their parents while the women were married off and the parents would have to care for themselves. Chinas One Child Policy We think this sums it all up. And now, a Video Women have more opportunities for education

Countryside women are beginning to work in the cities

Women who stay home have to take on more responsibilities because their husbands are working in the cities Cultural diversity and social gender are closely related.

Chinese women are playing more important roles, but at the same time they have to work harder than before. Quotes In modern china, the general status of women is rising. Foot Binding Began in the Sung dynasty (960-976 BC)

Was designed to imitate an imperial concubine who was required to dance with her feet bound

By the 12th century, the practice had become more severe, girls could not dance and had difficulty even walking.

When a girl turned three, her toes were broken

Her feet were then bound with strips if cloth to prevent the feet from growing longer than about 3.9 inches

Foot binding ended in the 20th century, due to the influence of western culture Background When I was seven my mother.washed and placed alum on my feet and cut my toenails. She then bent my toes toward the plantar with a binding cloth ten feet long and two inches wide doing the right foot first and then the left. She…ordered me to walk but when I did the pain proved unbearable, that night…my feet felt on fire and I couldnt sleep;mother struck me for crying. On the following days I tried to hide but was forced to walk on my feet…after several months all toes but the big one were pressed against the inner surface..,mother would remove the bindings and wipe the blood and puss which dripped from my feet. She told me that only with removal of the flesh could my feet become slender…every two weeks I changed to new shoes. Each new pair was one to two tenths of an inch smaller than the previous summer my feet smelled offensively because of puss and blood;in winter my feet felt cold because of lack of circulation…four of the toes were curled in like so many dead caterpillars…it took two years to achieve the three inch model…my shanks were thin, my feet became humped, ugly and odoriferous. From a woman who had her feet bound… It was a luxury only the rich could practice. Poorer girls needed their feet so they could help work.

It soon became a prerequisite for marriage

Poor mothers bound their daughters feet in hope that their daughters could marry up in society

The first anti-foot binding society was formed in 1895 Why was this practiced? communism establishes gender equality

promotes free love and marriage Changes that communism caused Problems with communism Led to a de-emphasis of family

Love and marriage is secondary to revolution

Many educated women looked down on household duties and caring for children Why cant outnumbered women find a match? Any unmarried woman over the age of 25 or 27 is labeled in China as a leftover

With far more men than women in China, this could prove to be a problem

Women are getting more picky about who they want to marry, which is lessening the choices for men. Facts 90% of men think that women should be married before the age of 27 to avoid being forever undesirable

118 boys are born in China for every 100 girls

By 2020, it is expected for 24 million men to be unmarried

In the 2020s, it is estimated that 15 to 20 percent of Chinese men will not have access to brides. The Numbers Behind it Those who can bear the shortcomings and sufferings of men will get married, those not, single

If you want to stand a snowballs chance in hell of ever getting married in this country, dont demand too much from your man.

Leftover ladies is really a bit of a misnomer–its womens own standards that are changing so quickly. Quotes It officially restricts married, urban couples to having only one child, while allowing exemptions for several cases, including twins, rural couples, ethnic minorities. and parents without any siblings themselves. The One Child Policy Helps prevent social, economic, and environmental problems through out China

76% of the Chinese population supports the policy.

Estimates say that hundreds of millions of births may have been prevented The Positive Effects There has been an increase in the number of abortions

Some parents do not report the births of their children.

Many citizens continue to have more than one child

Parents who dont follow the policy can lose their jobs The Negative Effects Ways around it Wealthier families can pay fines

Some people choose to travel over seas and have a second child with a foreign passport

Rural areas need more children to help work in the fields

One can pay a broker to bribe officials for documentation for their extra children

Though illegal one can get an ultra sound and abort the child if it is not the desired gender

Some families wait until they have two children and then register them as twins The wife moved in with her husbands family. The elder generations were respected greatly

A woman would only become important if she outlived her husband and became the oldest in the household

A woman should not have a life outside the home

A womans role was to look after her husband and family

Confucious taught that a womans greatest role was to have a son Family Life The childrens parents would consult an astrologer

A womans thoughts and opinions were not important; a father had the final word on his daughters marriage

Arranged marriage was common but outlawed in 1949

the wife would move in with her husbands family and often became the servant of her mother-in-law

If families were very poor they would sell their daughters as servants

If a wife did not have a son, many chinese men would re-marry Marriage It was not considered important to educate girls

Women were not allowed to take exams and therefore could not be in government services

Female scholars were very rare Education Centered on the home

Tasks involved preparing food, cleaning, and looking after children

women were expected to have many children, preferably sons

Some poor women worked in the fields with their husbands Work The secret language of the Chinese women Developed in the Jiangyong county in southern China

It was a secret written language developed by women who were not allowed to be educated

It was passed down by women and was never to be shared with men Information Marriage Weddings are a prominent part of Chinese society. The entire family takes full part in the wedding

They chose things such as the wedding day during a formal meeting between the elders of the family The womans family prepares a list of the dowry

One aim of the dowry is to help the new couple start their new life with ease Dowry The house is decorated with vibrant banners

Red is used in the decorations because red symbolized happiness

They put up poems and other arts and crafts

After the wedding, there is a ceremony with tea The Wedding DayFull transcriptMore presentations byangela youngerIs Electric the Fuel of The Future?

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Womans Day – March 2017 PDF

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Womans Day ReviewWomans Day this magazine is written and edited for the contemporary woman in that it covers the various issues that are important to women today. Its feature articles are devoted to information on food and nutrition, health and fitness, beauty and fashion as well as the traditional values of home, family and children. The changing needs of women are also addressed with articles which focus on careers, money management, law and relationships.Contents on Womans Day – March 2017 PDFThe content ofWomans Day – March 2017 PDFmagazine are not found.Nude womens models and Naked womens models in this issue Womans Day – March 2017 PDF are not found

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Womens Role in Contemporary Korea

In traditional Korean society, womens roles were confined to the home. From a young age, women were taught the virtues of subordination and endurance to prepare for their future roles as wife and mother. Women, in general, could not participate in society as men did, and their role was limited to household matters.

The situation began to change with the opening of the country to the outside world during the late 19th century. During this period modern schools were introduced, mostly by Western Christian missionaries. Some of these schools were founded with the specific goal of educating women. These educated women began to engage in the arts, teaching, religious work, and enlightening other women. Women also took part in the independence movement against the Japanese occupation, and displayed no less vigor, determination, and courage than the men.

With the establishment of the Republic of Korea in 1948, women achieved constitutional rights for equal opportunities to pursue education, work, and public life. There is no doubt that the female labor force contributed significantly to the rapid economic growth that Korea achieved during the past three decades. An increasing number of women work in professional fields.

As economic development proceeded and the living conditions of Koreans improved, the educational attainment level of women also increased. In 1966, among those graduating from elementary school, only 33 percent of girls continued their education in middle school. The comparable figures for high school and university were 20 percent and 4 percent, respectively, during the same period. However, by 1998, the comparable ratios reached 99.5 percent and 61.6 percent for high school and university. The economic participation rate of women also has increased steadily since industrialization from 34.4 percent in 1965 to 48.1 percent in 1999.

In terms of characteristics of the female labor force, in 1975, only 2 percent of the female labor force worked in professional or managerial occupations, while 4 percent worked in clerical positions. However, by 1998, 12.6 percent of female employees were serving in professional or managerial positions, and another 16 percent were working in clerical occupations.

With an increasing number of women entering professional jobs, the government passed the Equal Employment Act in 1987 to prevent discriminatory practices against female workers in regard to hiring and promotion opportunities.

Korean women today are actively engaged in a wide variety of fields, including education, medicine, engineering, scholarship, the arts, law, literature, and sports. Women are thus making significant contributions to society.

With the launch of the new Administration in 1998, the Presidential Commission on Womens Affairs was established to handle issues specifically involving women. The commission was elevated and expanded to become the Ministry of Gender Equality in January 2001. The new ministry set up 20 specific tasks to be achieved in six basic areas. These areas are: to revise and establish laws and rules that involve discrimination in any sector and to increase the representation of women, to facilitate womens employment and provide support for female workers, to increase educational opportunities for women to be competitive in the labor market, to provide social welfare policies for women, to promote womens involvement in various social activities including volunteer work and womens organization activities, and to strengthen the cooperation of Korean womens organizations with international womens organizations.

Author: Korean Overseas Information Service (KOIS).

Additional Background Reading on Asia

North Korea: Looking Beyond the Stereotypes

Weve compiled resources to help you cut through the stereotypes surrounding North Korea and more deeply examine the country, its people, and the complexities of its politics and nuclear program.

Chinas Education System: The Oldest in the World

It may sound incredible, but Chinas formal education systemthe oldest in the worldwas established nearly two millennia ago.

The Worlds Most Incredible Alphabet

Hint: It was invented to fit a language that previously used a borrowed writing system.

Museum resources and educational resources that help students develop visual literacy and a better understanding of the world.

A case for practicing calligraphy from one learners perspective.

How Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism complement one another. Read on to learn about the fourth teaching.

Math, Science, and Technology in India

A tour de force essay written by Dr. Roddham Narasimha.

Indian Influences on Western Literature

Includes case studies on Ralph Waldo Emerson, T.S. Eliot, Herman Hesse, and The Beatles. A must-read!

On Islam and the use of geometric patterns.

Asian Americans and U.S.-Asia Relations during World War II

The Worlds Most Incredible Alphabet

Hint: It was invented to fit a language that previously used a borrowed writing system.

How one nation turned around its education system radically–and achieved an 86 percent enrollment rate in higher education.

Students in many countries now out-rank American students academically. Top-performing nations sound off on reforms that worked.

International dispute over history textbooks in East Asia.

Womens Role in Contemporary Korea

An essay about Korean womens role in society and its rapid change in the last century.

Asia Society takes no institutional position on policy issues and has no affiliation with any government.

All views expressed in its publications and on its website are the sole responsibility of the author or authors.

International Womens Day 2014 The shocking statistics that show why it is still so important

International Womens Day, like any event that promotes positive discrimination, is accompanied by its fair share of negative remarks.

The earliest Womens Days were held in the first decade of 20th century. This was before women had the vote, before women could legally terminate a pregnancy. In the UK, it was only ten years since a married woman could legally own her own property, rather than be property herself. Marie Curie was yet to become the first woman to win the Nobel Prize.

More than a century later and its tempting to see International Womens Day as redundant, a celebratory event at best. Why do we need the event at all? The causes that triggered those first campaigns have been fought and won. Women in todays society have all the equality they could ever need, right? Wrong.

I have not lived as a woman. I have lived as a man. Ive just done what I damn well wanted to, and Ive made enough money to support myself, and aint afraid of being alone

Girls can wear jeans and cut their hair short, wear shirts and boots cause its okay to be a boy. But for a boy to look like a girl is degrading cause you think being a girl is degrading

Rape is one of the most terrible crimes on earth and it happens every few minutes. The problem with groups who deal with rape is that they try to educate women about how to defend themselves. What really needs to be done is teaching men not to rape. Go to the source and start there

No woman gets an orgasm from shining the kitchen floor

I want to be representative of my race – the human race. I have a chance to show how kind we can be, how intelligent and generous we can be

I am from Britain and think it is right that as a woman I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decision-making of my country. I think it is right that socially I am afforded the same respect as men.

I want to say to you who think women cannot succeed, we have brought the government of England to this position, that it has to face this alternative: either women are to be killed or women are to have the vote

To every woman who gave birth, to every taxpayer and citizen of this nation, we have fought for everybody elses equal rights, its our time to have wage equality once and for all, and equal rights for women in the United States of America.

AFP PHOTO / Robyn BECKROBYN BECK/AFP/Getty Images

They said, You are a savage and dangerous woman. I am speaking the truth. And the truth is savage and dangerous

It is a vulgar error that love, a love, to woman is her whole existence; she is born for Truth and Love in their universal energy

All societies on the verge of death are masculine. A society can survive with only one man; no society will survive a shortage of women

A cultural fixation on female thinness is not an obsession about female beauty but an obsession about female obedience

I myself have never able to find out precisely what a feminist is. I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat

In societies where men are truly confident of their own worth, women are not merely tolerated but valued

Does feminist mean large unpleasant person wholl shout at you or someone who believes women are human beings. To me its the latter, so I sign up

A good part – and definitely the most fun part – of being a feminist is about frightening men

Why do [male co-stars] get the really interesting, existential questions and I get the, like, rabbit food question?

I declare to you that woman must not depend upon the protection of man, but must be taught to protect herself, and there I take my stand

No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother

Apparently, the most difficult feat for a Cambridge male is to accept a woman not merely as feeling, not merely as thinking, but as managing a complex, vital interweaving of both

I suppose I could have stayed home and baked cookies and had teas, but what I decided to do was to fulfill my profession, which I entered before my husband was in public life

The idea of being a feministso many women have come to this idea of it being anti-male and not able to connect with the opposite sexbut what feminism is about is equality and human rights. For me that is just an essential part of my identity. I hope [Girls] contributes to a continuance of feminist dialogue

When a man gives his opinion, hes a man. When a woman gives her opinion, shes a bitch

All men should be feminists. If men cared about womens rights, the world would be a better place

Every man I meet wants to protect me. I cant figure out what from

I hate to hear you talk about all women as if they were fine ladies instead of rational creatures. None of us want to be in calm waters all our lives

A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle

Why do people say grow some balls? Balls are weak and sensitive. If you wanna be tough, grow a vagina. Those things can take a pounding

I hate men who are afraid of womens strength

We stand with women by fighting for economic security, protecting access to health care and supporting womens leadership across the country

I have a daughter and I have granddaughters and I will never vote to let a group of backward-looking ideologues cut womens access to birth control. We have lived in that world, and we are not going back, not ever

In Pakistan, when we were stopped from going to school, at that time I realized that education Is the power for women, and thats why the terrorists are afraid of education

Dont compromise yourself. You are all youve got

I hope that my presence on your screens and in magazines may lead you, young girl, on a similar journey. That you will feel the validation of your external beauty but also get to the deeper business of being beautiful inside. There is no shade in that beauty.

As a woman I have no country. As a woman my country is the whole world

International Womens Day is still needed to motivate change, at home and abroad. Some of these statistics put into sharp relief just how far we still have to go.

Globally, about one in three women will be beaten or raped during their lifetime. About44 per cent of all UK womenhave experienced eitherphysical or sexual violencesince they were 15-years-old. Britain ranks among the worst countries in Europe when it comes to women being violently abused.

On average, 30% of women who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced some form of physical or sexual violence by their partner.

38 per cent of all murders of women worldwide are committed by a womans intimate partner.

A UN report said 99.3% of women and girls in Egypt had been subjected to sexual harassment.

This is where girls have either all or part of their clitoris and inner and outer labia sliced off without anaesthesia, and sometimes have part of their vaginas sewn up too.

Over 130 million women living in the world today have undergoneFemale Genital Mutilation.

There as as many as 24,000 girls are at risk of cutting in the UK.

In one Birmingham hospital as many as 40 to 50 women every month are treated after undergoing female genital mutilation.

Around14 million girls, some as young as eight years old, will be married in 2014.

An estimated 1.2m children are trafficked into slavery each year; 80 per cent are girls.

In 10 countries around the world women are legally bound to obey their husbands

Only 76 countries have legislation that specifically addresses domestic violence and just 57 of them include sexual abuse.

In the UK, thegender pay gapstands at 15%, with women on average earning 5,000 less a year than their male colleagues. The disparity is even greater in part time jobs, going up to 35 per cent.

Globally only a 24 per cent of senior management roles are now filled by women.

The Equalities and Human Rights Commission estimates it will take 70 years at the current rate of progress to see an equal number of female and male directors of FTSE 100 companies.

This hurts everyone. The gender gap in certain industries is even more apparent and damaging. Zemach Getahun estimates that closing thegender gapin agriculture could reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 12-17 per cent.

If theskills and qualifications of womenwho are currently out of work in the UK were fully utilised, the UK could deliver economic benefits of 15 to 21 billion pounds per year more than double the value of all our annual exports to China.

Osbornes policies hit women almost four times harder than men

Comment: Heres why International Womens Day really matters

Mothers and daughters hopes and dreams: in pictures

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McDonalds

How Many Calories You Need to Eat to Lose Weight

Why Ryan Seacrest Says Hes Never Been Engaged

Check out some international meals from the popular fast-food chain

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The McDonalds golden arches have come to symbolize American culture around the world. Operating in 118 countries and on six continents, the fast-food chain has no choice but to expand its options beyond the classic hamburger and french fries. Whether its the Rice Burger in Taiwan or the Paneer Salsa Wrap in India, check out our picks for the 11 most interesting McDonalds menu items.

Looking for something besides bread as your burgers bun? Order the Rice Burger and youll get your choice of chicken or beef between two rice cakes. In an effort to drive business in rice-loving areas, the company felt this would be a great addition to theirmenu.Photo courtesy .

Poutine is a traditional Canadian dish that consists of french fries topped with cheese curds and smothered in brown gravy. The side dish is sold by many other Canadian fast-food chains, but the McDonalds version has a whopping 27 grams of fat. We hope its worth it!Photo courtesy ofMcDonalds.ca.

There are a couple of items on the Greek McDonalds menu you wont find in the States. You can help yourself to the Big Tiger Shrimp meal of crispy breaded shrimp served with sweet-and-sour sauce. Another unique item is the Shrimp Burger, made with grilled prawns, lettuce and special sauce.Photo courtesy m.

Bubur Ayam McD is definitely one of the more unusual items on the list, but not for the people of Malaysia. The dish is one of their favoritesconsisting of porridge topped with chicken strips, scallions, ginger, fried shallots and diced chiles.Photo courtesy .

Want a little more spice in your value meal? In India, you can try the Paneer Salsa Wrapa flatbread sandwich stuffed with fried paneer cheese, lettuce, red cabbage, celery, mayo and Cheddar, then drenched in a special salsa.Photo courtesy .

In Japan, McDonalds offers the Bacon Potato Pie. It may look like the classic apple pie, but instead of being sweet, its stuffed with savory ingredients like bacon, potatoes and onions. The Ebi Filet-O sandwich is another one-of-a-kind menu item. Its a crispy shrimp sandwich with onions, olives, lettuce and mustard.Photo courtesy ofMcDonalds.co.jp.

Who needs an Egg McMuffin when youve got the McMollettes? This Mexican McDonalds breakfast meal offers three English muffins topped with refried beans, cheese and pico de gallonow thats a breakfast of champions!Photo courtesy ofMcDonalds.com.mx.

Italian food at McDonalds? Why not?! McDonalds in the Philippines serves the Chicken McDo with Spaghetti, which includes one fried chicken piece and spaghetti marinara.Photo courtesy ofMcDonalds.com.ph.

Forget boring apple! In Thailand you can get Sweet Corn or Pineapple Pie for dessert. Another menu item not offered in the U.S. is the Thai version of cheesy fries: classic Mickey Ds fries topped with a creamy Cheddar sauce.Photo courtesy ofMcThai.co.th.

The Insalata Bresaola e Parmigiano, a staple of McDonalds locations in Italy, is a salad made with bresaola, an air-dried salted beef, with lettuce, carrots and Parmesan cheese.Photo courtesy ofMcDonalds.it.

Want to know what caught our eye on the Chilean McDonalds menu? The Pechuga McPalta. The McPalta, which means McAvocado in Chilean Spanish, is a chicken sandwich made with lettuce, tomato and their famous avocado paste.Photo courtesy ofMcDonalds.cl.

The 15 Best Smoothies and Drinks for Weight Loss and More

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16 Non-Alcoholic Drinks That Are Perfect for the Holidays

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Womans Day participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means Womans Day gets paid commissions on purchases made through our links to retailer sites.

China Whisper

Internships in China are growing in popularity and China is a place that is currently thriving with a host of opportunities in all kinds of industries. Ask yourself these questions. Are you looking for

If you are an animal lover by heart and have a lust to travel, your local zoos just wont do any longer. China offers a wide array of places that are perfect to see

China is an amazingly diverse country, and one that should be on every travelers list. Only a few countries have a variety of experiences such as China, hence making your trip a once-in-a-lifetime experience.

When it comes to forging relationships there really is a whole wide world out there. The internet has made it possible to get to know other singles in a diverse range of locations, and

Authentic Chinese food leaves your mouth watering, and maybe a little hot. Delicious and always perfectly seasoned, they create a powerful impact on every bite. Getting the dishes at a restaurant is not always

Chinese movies only came to international attention in the 1980s, with the lavish visuals and powerful stories of such Fifth Generation directors as Zhang Yimou and Chen Kaige. Neighboring Taiwan also found its cinematic

At a time of Chinese economic growth, Chinese really appreciate travel around the world, for discovering new landscape and another culture. They dont want waste their precious vacation time on a marginal destination, so

Gold is easy to get, a close friend is harder to find this Chinese proverb reveals the attitude of the Chinese towards friendship they appreciate it and believe that a good friend is

Dating a Chinese woman would be totally opposite to all the dating youve done in the past. Right from the beginning theyre pretty serious about who theyre dating since for them, it would eventually

8 Reasons Why You Should Intern in China

Top 8 Places to Visit in China for Animal Lovers

5 Tips for Chatting to Chinese Girls

Top 10 Most Famous Chinese Recipes You Should Know

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Women in China

History of women in China redirects here. For ancient and imperial China, seeWomen in ancient and imperial China.

This article is about women in the present day Peoples Republic of China. For women in the Republic of China, seeWomen in Taiwan.

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The lives ofwomen in Chinahave significantly changed throughout reforms in the lateQing Dynasty, theNationalist period, theChinese Civil War, and rise of thePeoples Republic of China, which had announced publicly on the commitment toward gender equality.[3]Efforts the new Communist government made toward gender equality were met with resistance in the historically male-dominatedChinesesociety, and obstacles continue to stand in the way of women seeking to gain greater equality in China.

Pre-modern Chinese society was predominantlypatriarchalandpatrilinealfrom at least the 11th century BCE onwards.[4]The freedoms and opportunities available to women varied depending on the time period and regional situation. The status of women was, like that of men, closely tied to theChinese kinship system.[5]There has long been a son preference in China, leading to high rates offemale infanticide, as well as a strong tradition of restricting thefreedom of movementof women, particularly upper class women, manifested through the practice offoot binding. The legal and social status of women has greatly improved in the 20th century.

Traditionalmarriagein prerevolutionaryChinawas a contract between families rather than between two individuals.[6]The parents of the soon-to-be groom and bride arranged the marriage with an emphasis on the alliance between the two families.[7]Spouse selection was based on family needs and the socioeconomic status of the potential mate, rather than love or attraction.[6]Although the womans role varied slightly depending on the social status of the husband, typically her main duty was to provide a son in order to continue the family name.[8]

Anarranged marriagewas accomplished by a matchmaker who acted as a link between two families.[9]The arrangement of a marriage involved the negotiation of abride price, gifts to be bestowed to the brides family, and occasionally adowryof clothing, furniture, or jewelry from the family of the bride for use in her new home.[6]The exchange of monetary compensation for a womans hand in marriage was also utilized in purchase marriages in which women were seen as property that could be sold and traded at the husbands whim.[8]

Along with many of the older Chinese traditions surrounding marriage, there were also many ritualistic steps that took place. During the time of the Han Dynasty a marriage lacking a dowry or betrothal gift was seen as dishonorable. Only after gifts were exchanged did the real steps continue on, brides were taken to live in the ancestral homes of their husbands. Here, they were expected to live with the entirety of her husbands family but to follow all of their rules and beliefs as well. Many families during this time followed the Confusion teachings regarding honoring their elders, these rituals were passed down from father to son and so forth, official family lists were made up that contained names of all the sons and marital wives. Thus, brides who did not produce a son were written out of family lists and forgotten. Further, when a husband dies the bride is seen as property of her spouses family. Ransoms were set by some bride families to get their daughters back, though never with her children who remained in the property of her husbands family.[10]

John Engel, a professor of Family Resources at theUniversity of Hawaii, argues that in order to redistribute wealth and achieve a classless society, thePeoples Republic of Chinaestablished theMarriage Law of 1950. The law was intended to cause … fundamental changes … aimed at family revolution by destroying all former patterns . .. and building up new relationships on the basis of new law and new ethics.[6]Xiaorong Li, a researcher at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy at the University of Maryland, asserts that the Marriage Law of 1950 not only banned the most extreme forms of female subordination and oppression, but also gave women the right to make their own marital decisions.[11]The Marriage Law specifically prohibitedconcubinageand marriages when one party was sexually powerless, suffered from a venereal disease,leprosy, or amental disorder.[6]Thirty years after the implementation of the 1950 Marriage Law, China still faces serious issues, particularly in regards to population growth.[6]

In a continuing effort to control marriage and family life, a marriage law was passed in 1980 and enacted in 1981.[6]The Marriage Law banned arranged and forced marriages and shifted focus away from the dominance of men and onto the interests of the children and women.[6]Article 2 of the 1980 Marriage law directly states, the lawful rights and interests of women, children and the aged are protected. Family planning is practiced.[6]Adults, both men and women, gained the right to lawful divorce.[7]

In an effort to fight the tenacity of tradition, Article 3 of the 1980 marriage law continued the ban of concubinage,polygamy, andbigamy.[6]The Marriage Law of 1980, Article 3, forbid mercenary marriages in which abride priceor dowry is paid.[6]Although the law also generally prohibited the exaction of money or gifts in connection with any marriage arrangements, bride price and dowries were still practiced customs.[6]According to Li, the traditional business of selling women in exchange for marriage returned after the law gave women the right to select their husbands.[11]In 1990, 18,692 cases were investigated by Chinese authorities[11]

Bride price payments are still common in rural areas, whereas dowries have not only become smaller but less common.[6]Similarly in urban areas, the dowry custom has nearly disappeared. The bride price custom has transformed into providing gifts for the bride or her family.[6]Article 4 of the marriage law banned the usage of compulsion or the interference of third parties, stating, marriage must be based upon the complete willingness of the two parties,[6]As Engel argues, the law also encouraged sexual equality by making daughters just as valuable as sons, particularly in regards to potential for old age insurance. Article 8 of the 1980 Marriage Law states, after a marriage has been registered, the woman may become a member of the mans family, or the man may become a member of the womans family, according to the agreed wishes of the two parties.[6]

More recently, there has been a surge in Chinese-foreign marriages in mainland China, with data showing these types of marriages are more common in women than in men. In 2010, there were almost 40,000 women registered in Chinese-foreign marriages in mainland China. In comparison, there were less than 12,000 men registered in these types of marriages in the same year.[12]

In traditional China, polygamy was legal and having a concubine (Seeconcubinage) was considered a luxury for aristocratic families.[13]In 1950, polygamy was outlawed and it seemed, for a while, that extramarital affairs were unheard of. TheNew Marriage Lawof 1950 allowed women in China to be able to divorce for the first time in China, which allowed women to leave husbands who had these extramarital affairs.[13]The phenomenon of de factopolygamy, or so-called second wives ( rni in Chinese), has reemerged in recent years.[14]When polygamy was legal, women were more tolerant of their husbands extramarital affairs. Today, women who discover their husband has a second wife are less tolerant and now have the ability to ask for a divorce.[15]

Men tend to travel to mainland China for work and business. Sudden industrialization in China brought two types of people together: young female workers and rich businessmen from cities like Hong Kong. Some rich businessmen start relationships with these women, known as keeping a second wife (bao yinai) in Cantonese.[15]Many migrant women find it difficult to find husbands, so they make themselves more readily available to become the second wives and lovers of rich businessmen.[16]The men are attracted to these economically dependent women; the businessmens first wives tended to stay at home and not work.[15]There are many villages in southern part of China where predominantly these second wives live.[16]The men will come and spend a large amount of time in these villages every year while their first wife and family stay in the city.[17]The relationships can range from just being casual sexual transactions that are paid for by the businessman to being long term relationships that develop into something more. If a relationship does become something more, some of the Chinese women quit their job and become live-in lovers whose main job is to please the working man.[18]

The first wives in these situations have a hard time dealing with their husbands taking part in extramarital affairs, but women deal with it in different ways. Most women dont have much say because they are usually far away from their husbands. Even if the wives do move to China with their husbands, the businessman still find ways to carry on affairs. Some wives go into the situation with the motto one eye open, with the other eye closed meaning they understand their husbands are bound to cheat, but want to make sure they practice safe sex and do not bring home children.[18]What becomes confusing is the relationship with the children and the father who is almost always gone. Many first wives, in order to suppress the childrens questions, downplay the fathers role and make it seem less important. Other women fear for their financial situations. In order to protect their lifes work, some women try to protect their rights but putting the house and other major finances in their names instead of their husbands.[18]

This situation has created many social and legal issues. Unlike previous generations ofarranged marriages, the modern polygamy is more often voluntary.[16]Women in China are facing serious pressures to be married, by family and friends. There is a derogatory term for women who are not married by the time they are in their late twenties,sheng nu. With these pressures to be married, some women who have very few prospects willingly enter into a second marriage. Sometimes, these second wives are promised a good life and home by these men. Oftentimes, these women are poor and uneducated so when they split, they have very little left. Sometimes these women were completely unaware that the man was already married.[6]There are now lawyers who specialize in representing these second wives so they are not taken advantage of if the relationship ends badly. See documentary attached, Chinas Second Wives.[7]This documentary takes a look at the rights of second wives and some of the issues they face.

TheMarriage Law of 1950empowered women to initiate divorce proceedings.[19]According to Elaine Jeffreys, an Australian Research Council Future Fellow and Associate Professor in China studies, divorce requests were only granted if they were justified by politically proper reasons. These requests were mediated by party-affiliated organizations, rather than discredited legal systems.[19]Ralph Haughwout Folsom, a professor of Chinese law,international trade, andinternational businesstransactions at theUniversity of San Diego, and, John H. Minan, a trial attorney in the Civil Division of theU.S. Department of Justiceand a law professor at the University of San Diego, argue that the Marriage Law of 1950 allowed for much flexibility in the refusal ofdivorcewhen only one party sought it. During the market-based economic reforms, China re-instituted a formal legal system and implemented provisions for divorce on a more individualized basis.[19]

Jeffreys asserts that the Marriage Law of 1980 provided for divorce on the basis that emotions or mutual affections were broken.[19]As a result of the more liberal grounds for divorce, the divorce rates soared[20]As women began divorcing their husbands, tensions increased and much resistance was met from rural males.[21]Although divorce was now legally recognized, thousands of women lost their lives for attempting to divorce their husbands and some committed suicide when the right to divorce was withheld.[21]Divorce, once seen as a rare act during theMao era(19491976), has become more common with rates continuing to increase today.[22]Along with this increase in divorce, it became evident that divorced women were often given an unfair share or housing and property.[19]

The amended Marriage Law of 2001, which according to Jeffreys was designed to protect womens rights, provided a solution to this problem by reverting to a moralistic fault-based system with a renewed focus oncollectivistmechanisms to protect marriage and family.[19]Although all property acquired during a marriage was seen as jointly-held,[20]it was not until the implementation of Article 46 of the 2001 Marriage Law that the concealment ofjoint propertywas punishable.[19]This was enacted to ensure a fair division during a divorce.[19]The article also granted the right for a party to request compensation from a spouse who committed illegal cohabitation,bigamy, and family violence or desertion.[19]

In 2004, theAll-China Womens Federationcompiled survey results to show that thirty percent of the women in China experienceddomestic violencewithin their homes. The Chinese Marriage Law was amended in 2001 to offer mediation services and compensation to those who subjected to domestic violence. Domestic violence was finally criminalized with the 2005 amendment of the Law of Protection of Rights and Interests of Women.[23]

The lack of public awareness of the 2005 amendment has allowed spousal abuse to persist.[24]There was a significant increase in the prevalence of domestic violence in thePeoples Republic of Chinainvolving Chinese women committing violence against Chinese men.[24]In 2003, 10 percent of violence in families involved male victims.

The gender gap in current enrollment widens with age because males are more likely to be enrolled than females at every age group in the Peoples Republic of China.[25]1961 marked the sudden decrease in female enrollment in primary and secondary school. Female primary school enrollment suffered more than that of males during theGreat Chinese Famine(19581961).[25]Although the gender gap for secondary and primary education has narrowed over time, the gender gap at the highest education level remains much larger.[25]

The One Percent Population Survey in 1987 found that in rural areas 48 percent of males aged 45 and above wereilliteratewhile on the other hand, 6 percent of males 1519 years old were illiterate. Although the percentage of illiterate women decreased significantly from 88 percent to 15 percent, it is significantly higher than the percentage of illiterate men for the same age groupings.[25]

In traditional Chinese culture, which was apatriarchal society based on Confucian ideology, women did not possess priority in healthcare.Health carewas tailored to focus on men.[26]Chinese health care has since undergone much reform and has tried to provide men and women with equal health care. During theCultural Revolution(19661976), thePeoples Republic of Chinabegan to focus on the provision of health care for women.[26]

This change was apparent when the women in the Chinese workforce were granted health care. Health care policy required all women workers to receive urinalysis and vaginal examinations yearly.[26]The Peoples Republic of China has enacted various laws to protect the health care rights of women, including the Maternal and Child Care law. This law and numerous others focus on protecting the rights of all women in the Peoples Republic of China.

The phenomenon of themissing women of Asiais visible in China. Theratio of men to womenin China is much higher than would be expected biologically, and gender discrimination has contributed to this imbalance.[27]Amartya Sen, theNobel Prize-winningeconomist, asserted in 1990 that over 100 million women were missing globally, with 50 million women missing from China alone. Sen attributed the deficit in the number of women to sex-selective abortion, femaleinfanticide, and inadequatenutritionfor girls, all of which have been encouraged by theOne-child policy.[28]

For women in China, the most likely cancer to be found is cervical cancer. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests to use routine screening to confirm if this woman gets cervical cancer. However, information on cervical cancer screening is not quite available for women in China.[29]

Among Uyghurs it was thought that God designed women to endure hardship and work, the word for helpless one, ʿjiza, was used to call women who were not married while women who were married were called mazlm among in Xinjiang, however, divorce and remarriage was facile for the women[30]The modern Uyghur dialect in Turfan uses the Arabic word for oppressed, maẓlum, to refer to married old woman and pronounce it as mäzim.[31]Woman were normally referred to as oppressed person (mazlum-kishi), 13 or 12 years old was the age of marriage for women in Khotan, Yarkand, and Kashgar.[32]Robert Barkley Shawwrote that* Mazlm, lit. oppressed one, is used in Kshghar, &c., instead of the wordwoman.[33]A womans robe was referred to as mazlm-cha chappan.[34]

Uyghursayings on women:[35][36][37][38]

Firewood serves for winter, a wife serves for her husbands pleasure.(Qişniŋ rahiti oton, ärniŋ rahiti xoton.) (قىشنىڭ ﺭﺍﻫﯩﺘﻰ ئوتون, ئەرنىڭ ﺭﺍﻫﯩﺘﻰ خوتون)

Woman is the slave of the house.(Xotun kişi tt tamniñ quli.) (خوتۇن كىشى تۈت تامنىڭ قۇلى)

Allah is God for a woman, the husband is half God.(Ayalniñ ptn xudasi XUDA, yärim Xudasi är.) (ئايالنىڭ پۈتۈن خۇداسى خۇدا, يەرىم خۇداسى ئەر)

the first wife is a good woman, the second a witch, and the third a prostitute.(birgä täkkän yaxši, ikkigä täkkän baxši, čkä täkkän paxši.) (بىرگە تەككەن ياخشى, ئىككىگە تەككەن باخشى, ئۈچكە تەككەن پاخشى)

A family with many women will be miserable.(Qizi barniñ därdi bar.) (قىزى بارنىڭ دەردى بار)

Let your daughter marry or you will die of regret instead of illness.(Qiziñ Öyde ärsiz uzaq turmiğay, ölärsän puşaymanda sän ağirmay.) (قىزىڭ ئۆيدە ەرسىز ئۇزاق تۇرمىغاي, ئۆلەرسەن پۇشايماندا سەن اغىرماي)

Woman: long hair, short wit.(Xotun xäqniñ çaçi uzun, ä qli qisqa.) (خوتۇن خاقنىڭ چەچى ۇزۇن ئە قلى قىسقا)

A woman without a husband is like a horse without a halter.(Ärsiz xotun, yugänsiz baytal.) (ەرسىز خوتۇن, يۇگەنسىز بايتال)

Men rely on life, a wife relies on her husband.(Är jeni bilän, xişri äri bilän.) (ەر جېنى بىلەن, خىشرى ەرى بىلەن)

Women were used for reproduction, sex, and housework.[39]

Some Vietnamese women fromLao Caiwho married Chinese men stated that among their reasons for doing so was that Vietnamese men beat their wives, engaged in affairs with mistresses, and refused to help their wives with chores while Chinese men actively helped their wives carry out chores and care for them.[40]

In a study comparing Chinese and Vietnamese attitudes towards women, more Vietnamese than Chinese said that the male should dominate the family and a wife had to provide sex to her husband at his will.[41]Violence against women was supported by more Vietnamese than Chinese.[42]Domestic violence was more accepted by Vietnamese women than Chinese women.[43]

Most Koreancomfort womenwho stayed in China married Chinese men and one of them gave the explanation that: Chinese men are different from their Korean counterparts. The latter like to drink and harass women but Chinese men are extremely endearing to their wives.[44]

In 1956, the Chinese government publicly announced its goal to control the exponentially increasing population size. The government planned to use education and publicity as their main modes of increasing awareness.[45]Zhou Enlailaunched the first program for smaller families under the guidance of Madame Li Teh-chuan, theMinister of Healthat the time. During this time, family planning and contraceptive usage were highly publicized and encouraged.[46]

The One-child policy, initiated in 1978 and first applied in 1979, mandated that each married couple may bear only one child, except in the case of special circumstances.[47]These conditions included, the birth of a first child who has developed a non-hereditary disability that will make it difficult to perform productive labour later in life, the fact that both husband and wife are themselves single children, a misdiagnosis of barrenness in the wife combined with a passage of more than five years after the adoption of a child, a remarrying husband and wife who have between them only one child.[47]The law was relaxed in 2015.[48]

A roadside slogan calls motorists to crack down on medically unnecessary antenatal sex identification and sex-selective pregnancy termination practices. (Daye, Hubei, 2008)

Further information:Missing women of ChinaFemale infanticide in China, andList of Chinese administrative divisions by gender ratio

The preference for sons coupled with the one-child-policy have led to a high rate ofsex selective abortionin China. Mainland China has a highly masculine sex ratio. Thesex ratioat birth (between male and female births) inmainland Chinareached 117:100 in the year 2000, substantially more masculine than the natural baseline, which ranges between 103:100 and 107:100. It had risen from 108:100 in 1981at the boundary of the natural baselineto 111:100 in 1990.[49]According to a report by the State Population and Family Planning Commission, there will be 30 million more men than women in 2020, potentially leading to social instability.[50]The correlation between the increase of masculinesex ratiodisparity on birth and the deployment of one child policy would appear to have been caused by the one-child policy.

The policy not only limits the number of births a family can have and it does not only cause gender imbalance but it also put pressures to women. Women are mostly blamed when giving birth to a baby girl as if they chose the gender of their baby. Women were subjected to forced abortions if they appear to be having a baby girl[51]This situation led to higher female infanticide rates and female deaths in China. The one-child policy stole the freedom the women have in deciding how to live their lives and in making their own decisions.

Other Asian regions also have higher than average ratios, includingTaiwan(110:100), which does not have a family planning policy.[52]Many studies have explored the reason for the gender-based birthrate disparity in China as well as other countries. A study in 1990 attributed the high preponderance of reported male births in mainland China to four main causes: diseases which affect females more severely than males; the result of widespreadunder-reportingof female births;[53]the illegal practice ofsex-selective abortionmade possible by the widespread availability ofultrasound; and finally, acts ofchild abandonmentandinfanticide.

According to reports by the Amnesty International, family planning officials inPuningCity, Guangdong Province launched theIron Fist Campaignin April 2010.[54]This campaign targeted individuals forsterilizationin an attempt to control population growth. 9,559 individuals in Puning City were targeted for sterilization, some against their will.[54]The targeted individuals were asked to go to governmental clinics where they would be sterilized. If they refused the procedure, then they put their families at risk for detainment.[54]

The Iron Fist Campaign lasted for 20 days and targeted 9,559 individuals.[54]Approximately 50 percent consented and 1,377 relatives of targeted couples were detained.[54]Family planning officials defended the Iron Fist Campaign, asserting that the large population of migrant workers in Puning misunderstood theOne-child policyand therefore had not complied with family planning regulations.[54]In an attempt to standardize family planning policies across all of China, the Population and Family Planning Law of 2002 was implemented. According to the Amnesty International, the law protects individual rights and bans the usage of coercion or detainment.[54]

In current-day China, women enjoy legalequal rightstoproperty, but in practice these rights are often difficult to realize. However, Chinese women have historically held little rights to private property, both by societal customs and by law. In imperial China (before 1911 C.E.), family households held property collectively, rather than as individual members of the household. This property customarily belonged to the family ancestral clan, with legal control belonging to the family head, or the eldest male.[55]

Ancestry in imperial China waspatrilineal, or passed through the male. Because women were not a part of this male-based ancestral line, they could never share the family property.[56]Upon the death of the head of household, property was passed to the eldest son. In the absence of an eligible son, a family would often adopt a son to continue the family line and property.[57]

However, as Kathryn Bernhardt, a scholar of Chinese history points out, nearly one in three women during theSong dynasty(960-1279 C.E.) would either have no brothers or no sons, leaving them with some agency over family property. In these cases, unmarried daughters would receive their fathers property in the absence of direct male descendants, or an unmarried widow would choose the family heir.[57]A new law enacted during theMing dynasty(1368-1644 C.E.) required that in the absence of a direct male descendant, a mans property was to go to his nephews. With this change in law, womens access to private property was restricted. At that point, only if none of a mans sons and none of his brothers sons were alive to inherit property would a daughter receive the inheritance.[56]

In most cases, the most control over family property that a widow would receive was maintenance, or the agency to control the property while an heir came of age.[57]In some cases after some reforms in theQing Dynasty(1644-1912), some women could retain maintenance over undivided property even after their sons came of age.[58]Law during the Republican era interpreted this to mean that widows held complete power over sons in control of family property.[58]

TheKuomintang, which assumed power over China in 1911, publicly advocated for gender equality, though not very many changes in property rights went into effect until the enactment of theRepublican Civil Codein 1930, which changed the basic definitions of property and family inheritance.[57][58]The Code specified that family property legally belonged to the father, with no connection to the ancestral clan.[57]

Inheritance of this property was based on direct lineage, regardless of gender, so that sons and daughters would receive an equal share of family property upon the death of their parents. Furthermore, a mans will or appointment of a different heir could not fully bypass the legally mandated inheritance structures, preventing families from holding onto gender-discriminatory customs.[57]Despite the laws equitable wording on property, some scholars, such as Deborah Davis and Kathryn Bernhardt, point out that the legal definitions regarding property may not have entirely changed the practices of the general public.[57][59]

ThePeoples Republic of China, which assumed control in 1949 and remains in power today, also promised gender equality. The PRCs approach was different from the Kuomintang. With regards to land, all land was owned by the central Chinese government and allocated for people to use, so technically no one, male or female, owned land. In 1978, the Chinese government set up a household farming system that split agricultural land into small plots for villages to allocate to citizens.[60]

Land was distributed to households with legal responsibility in the family head, or the eldest male. So, a womans access to land was contingent on her being part of a household. Land leases were technically supposed to transfer with marriage to a womans marital family, but the perfect allocation of land leases was not always reached, meaning women could potentially lose land upon marriage. Such village allocations have since ceased, so the leases to the land are now passed through families.[61]

For property other than land, new Chinese laws allow for distinction between personal and communal property. Married couples can simultaneously own some things individually while sharing others with their spouse and family. With regards to divorce, Chinese law generally demands a 50/50 split of property. TheMarriage Law of 1980defined different types of divorce that would split the conjugal property differently, such as instances of adultery or domestic violence.[59]

Since most divorce disputes are settled at a local level, the law allows for courts to review specific situations and make decisions in the best interest of the child. Typically, such a decision would simultaneously favor the mother, especially in disputes over a house where the child would live. In some divorce disputes ownership and use over property would be distinguished, giving a mother and child use of the family house without awarding the mother full ownership of the house.[